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TThis site is dedicated to Bloomberg News reporter  Mark Pittman . He predicted the subprime mortgage crisis, timed the stock market decline of 2008-09 and took on the Federal Reserve. He died Nov. 25, 2009, at the age of 52. Fed Refuses to Disclose Recipients of $2 Trillion (Correct)

Oct. 25 (Bloomberg) -- The late Bloomberg News reporter Mark Pittman asked the U.S. Treasury in January 2009 to identify $301 billion of securities owned by Citigroup Inc. that the government had agreed to guarantee. He made the request under the federal Freedom of Information Act on the grounds that taxpayers ought to know how their money was being used. (JTNote: The information he requested was never sent to him.)


" The American Beauty Rose can be produced in its splendor and fragrance only by sacrificing the early buds which grow up around it."



Barclays Group Archives are home to the records of Barclays PLC and its predecessors, dating from 1567 to the present day


John Freame and Thomas Gould start trading as goldsmith bankers,%20updated%209-30-14).pdf

Barclays business can be traced back to two Quakers called John Freame and Thomas Gould, who established themselves as goldsmith bankers in Lombard Street in the City of London in 1690. Their business flourished, helped in no small part by its Quaker connections. They financed Quaker traders in the new colonies in America and the Caribbean, they helped to finance the Pennsylvania Land Company, and they were actively involved in Quaker-dominated companies like the London Lead Company and the Welsh Copper Company. 


 Freame and Gould sold silver to the Royal Mint. They were also the closest thing the Quakers had to an official banker, holding the Society Of Friends' central funds (known as the national stock). In 1695, this amounted to £1,100.


 James was the son of David Barclay by his first wife, Ann. Following the death of Ann, David Barclay married Freame’s elder daughter Priscilla in 1723. This rather complicated state of affairs meant that James Barclay's stepmother was also his sister-in-law, but is quite typical of the way the Quakers ran their lives and businesses. Family, religious and business ties were inextricably linked.
Note: David Barclay Senior did not become a partner in the bank, his sons by his second wife (and, therefore, John Freame’s grandsons), David Barclay the younger and John Barclay did.


In 1728, Freame’s son, Joseph, became a partner in the bank, and John Freame began a gradual process of retirement.



Colonial banks were established in America


James Barclay joined the firm in 1733, having married Freame’s daughter, Sarah.



James Barclay becomes partner in the bank                    


The Land Bank of Massachusetts was established to supply paper money, because the British government in 1737 ordered that the colony of Massachusetts issue no more paper money. This bank issued bank notes upon the security of land or of commodities--- banknotes that could be redeemed after twenty years,  and that might be paid in commodities.  It had no capital stock, but proposed to issue paper notes to the amount of 150,000 pounds (more than $500,000) to be secured by land. The Land Bank was finally suppressed by the British government.



The first Continental Congress met in Carpenter's Hall in Philadelphia, from September 5, to October 26, 1774.


Congress adopts Declaration of Independence, July 4: The birth-certificate of the United States of America

David Barclay the younger, who became a partner in the bank in 1776, was a very active Quaker.


Bank of Pennsylvania was chartered.

In July, the Bank of Pennsylvania was established for the purpose of raising funds to carry on the war.


Chartering of the Bank of North America

The Continental Congress, following the suggestion of Robert Morris, the financier of the American Revolution, created the Bank of North America.

The Continentalist No. IV, [30 August 1781]


1784- Financing New York
After the Revolutionary War, New York City was in a state of disrepair. But the city was determined to bounce back. Just months after British forces left U.S. soil, local merchants and lawyers came together to create a bank that would forever play a crucial role in the global financial system.

1784- $500,000
The Bank of New York opens for business with $500,000 in capital. Alexander Hamilton, financial leader and respected New York lawyer, singlehandedly writes its constitution and becomes one of the bank's directors.
NOTE:  In an effort to rejuvenate the economy after the war, Hamilton was very vocal about the need for a bank. While some called for "land banks"—so called because capital was measured by land—he was a champion for the case of liquid assets that could be converted into cash as needed, which would make international markets more accessible.



1787- Alexander McDougall is appointed first president of The Bank of New York.

NOTE: In 1787, the Fugio becomes the first coin authorized by Congress, though it is never circulated due to its light weight. Meaning "I Fly" in Latin, the coin prominently features the phrase "Mind Your Business."


1789- First in Finance
Already colonel, scholar, lawyer and writer, Alexander Hamilton adds first U.S. Secretary of the Treasury to his list of achievements.

NOTE:    The Bank of New York provides the first loan ever made to the U.S. government, in the amount of $200,000. A solid reputation with world governments—and a superior credit rating—is what still makes the Bank the safest bank in the U.S. today.


First Bank of the United States established - George Washington 1st President 1789-1797

After the founding of the government under the Constitution, Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of the Treasury, recommended the establishment of a Bank of the United States.  He argued that such a bank would increase the currency by issuing notes for circulation.   It would also make it easier for the government to obtain loans, and would enable the people to pay their taxes.

After considerable debate, Congress voted to establish First Bank of America , with a capital stock of $10,000,000, one fifth of which was subscribed by the government;  the remainder was subscribed by the public.

The bank was permitted to issue notes which were to be receivable for payments due the United States.

First Bank of the United States opened at Philadelphia in December, 1791, and subsequently established eight branches.  The bank had a charter for twenty years, which expired in 1811, and was not renewed because of the opposition to it which developed on the part of a  large number of state banks.

The Bank of the United States was also unpopular because much of its stock was held in foreign countries.


1792-Starting the Exchange
Long before computers, industrial averages, or opening bells, New York City stockbrokers were changing the way the world does business. Twenty-four gathered under a buttonwood tree just steps from what is now BNY Mellon headquarters to sign a document that would soon lead to the formation of the New York Stock Exchange.

1792-Trading Up
The New York Stock Exchange opens. The Bank of New York is the first company traded.


Stock Exchange


 JPMorgan Chase & Co. is one of the oldest, largest and best-known financial institutions in the world. The firm's legacy dates back to 1799 when its earliest predecessor was chartered in New York City.

Our firm is built on the foundation of more than 1200 predecessor institutions. Its major heritage firms — J.P. Morgan, Chase Manhattan, Chemical, Manufacturers Hanover (in New York City) and Bank One, First Chicago, and National Bank of Detroit (in the Midwest) were each closely tied, in their time, to innovations in finance and the growth of the United States and global economies. As JPMorgan Chase & Co does today, these firms also made significant contributions to their local communities. 

The Manhattan Company, J.P. Morgan's  earliest predecessor institution, is chartered.

1799: The Manhattan Company, the firm’s earliest predecessor institution, is chartered.

1799- Yellow Fever breaks out in Manhattan. The Bank of New York and many other downtown businesses move to the then independent Greenwich Village.

NOTE:The Manhattan Company was a New York bank and holding company established in 1799. The company merged with Chase National Bank in 1955 to form the Chase Manhattan Bank. It is the earliest of the predecessor institutions that eventually formed the current JPMorgan Chase & Co.


-There were only twenty-eight  banks in 1800.

-The capital moved from Philadelphia to Washington.



1804- First in Finance
The Bank of New York becomes depositary for what is believed to be the nation's first trust, established to provide for Alexander Hamilton's family after his death.



There were eighty-eight  banks, with a capital stock of $42,600,000.



1813-The Bank of New York establishes a relationship with Baring Brothers, a British banking house. When Baring later made a substantial loan to the Bank in 1822, successful repayments improved the Bank’s financial position and set the stage for strong international ties.


The number of state banks increased from 88 to 246.

Many of these banks were organized without proper restriction and therefore issued notes beyond their power to redeem.  The loose credit system of selling public lands in the West led to inflation.   Disorder followed because many of the banks were  not properly supervised.

During the period from 1814 to 1817,the government received for the sale of its land worthless banknotes which amounted to more than $4,000,000


Second Bank of the United States is chartered -James Madison was 4th President 1809-1817

The charter for the first Bank of the United States had not been renewed by Congress when it ran out, and a second Bank of the United States had been chartered in 1816. Toward the end of Jackson's first term a bill was passed by Congress to renew the charter of this second bank.

President Jackson, in keeping with his frontier upbringing , disliked the bank.  He was afraid, as were many of the common people, that it was operated for the benefit of the moneyed classes.  Because of his personal feelings,  he vetoed the bill of Congress to extend its license...

After he was elected for the second term, Jackson ordered the Secretary of the Treasury to withdraw all United States funds from the national bank and to place them in various state banks. [source: History of Our United States, Second Edition, page 285]



The South Carolina National Bank of Charleston is one of the most important buildings on Broad Street, South Carolina's oldest commercial street. It has been in continuous use as a bank since it was constructed in 1817. In the early 19th century, Charleston ranked highly enough as a commercial center to have a branch of the Second Bank of the United States, whose charter was drawn up by John C. Calhoun, the State's preeminent statesman.

This financial institution was the second attempt at a national bank; The First Bank of the United States had also established a branch in Charleston, now City Hall.

This Second Bank branch, that of Discount and Deposit, was the only bank in the city equipped to handle the international transactions so crucial to the rice trade, a mainstay of the Lowcountry economy.


Brown Brothers Harriman was established in Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania in 1818. Through strategic investments and innovative business decisions, we have transitioned from leaders in merchant banking and transatlantic trade to an integrated worldwide financial services firm. We honor our past and we try to learn from it. But, in the day-to-day management of our business, we try to exercise enlightened opportunism. Because we are not beholden to stockholders, we try to take the long view and do what is best for our clients and the Partnership.


Stockton and Darlington Railway funded by Barclays   


The Chemical Bank is established.

1824: The Chemical Bank is established.


The newly chartered Bank of Charleston purchased the South Carolina National Bank of Charleston building on Broad Street, South Carolina's oldest commercial street  building in 1836, shortly after the Second Bank failed following the withdrawl of all government deposits by President Andrew Jackson.


George Peabody, a Massachusetts’s trader, set up a banking house - George Peabody & Co. - in London in 1837.


Gold discovered in California, January 18.

By 1848 the Bank of Charleston became a regional power with affiliates in Georgia, Alabama, Florida, and Louisiana. The bank managed to survive financially during the Civil War and Reconstruction, despite a $1.5 million loan to the Confederacy.

 The Waterbury Bank opens, a predecessor of the Chase Manhattan Bank.  

1848: The Waterbury Bank opens, a predecessor of the Chase Manhattan Bank.


Salmon Portland Chase AKA Salmon P. Chase, (nephew of Dudley Chase, cousin of Dudley Chase Denison, and father-in-law of William Sprague [1830-1915])elected to the United States Senate as a Free Soil candidate and served from March 4, 1849, to March 3, 1855;


We were founded in 1850 as a joint stock association and were incorporated in 1965 as a New York corporation. American Express Company and its principal operating subsidiary, American Express Travel Related Services Company, Inc. (TRS), are bank holding companies under the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended (the BHC Act), subject to supervision and examination by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (the Federal Reserve).

Our headquarters are located in lower Manhattan, New York, New York. We also have offices in other locations throughout the world.

During 2016, we principally engaged in businesses comprising four reportable operating segments: U.S. Consumer Services, International Consumer and Network Services, Global Commercial Services and Global Merchant Services. Corporate functions and certain other businesses are included in Corporate & Other. You can find information regarding our reportable operating segments, geographic operations and classes of similar services in Note 25 to our “Consolidated Financial Statements.”


Augustus Savin Chase, became Waterbury Bank‘s Cashier in 1852 and President in 1865, controlled it until his death in 1896.


 U.S. Trust becomes the first company in the nation to transact the business of a trust institution.

Our History and Heritage

At U.S. Trust, we have a long and rich history of helping clients achieve their own unique objectives. Since 1853, we've been committed to listening, building long-term relationships, and helping individuals and their families realize the opportunities they create for themselves, their children, businesses, communities and future generations.

A few of our milestones include:
◦1853: U.S. Trust becomes the first company in the nation to transact the business of a trust institution.
◦1880: U.S. Trust serves as Corporate Trustee for the Panama Canal
◦1906: Bank of Italy, today known as Bank of America, provides loans to citizens of San Francisco to rebuild after the earthquake.
◦1998: NationsBank acquires BankAmerica Corp to create the first coast-to-coast retail banking franchise - Bank of America
◦2007: Bank of America acquires U.S. Trust

Established in 1853 by the nation’s leading banks, The Clearing House originally functioned as the de facto central bank for banks in the United States long before the Federal Reserve was formed—facilitating exchanges, setting monetary policy, issuing a form of currency and even storing vaults of gold to back settlements.

---The Clearing House Association is a New York–headquartered trade group with a deep legacy and tradition. Formed in 1853, it is the nation’s first banking association that today advocates on regulatory, legislative, and legal public policy issues on behalf of the largest U.S. commercial banks before policymakers, courts of law, and standards setters in the United States and abroad.

Banks that own The Clearing House Association:

Capital one
BNY Mellon
Citizens Bank
M&T Bank
Key Bank
JP Morgan Chase & co.
Wells Fargo
Bank Financial Group
State Street
Fifth Third Bank
Bank of the West
Bank of America
Deutsche Bank


1854: Junius Spencer Morgan, J. Pierpont Morgan’s father, partners with George Peabody in the English banking house of George Peabody & Co. He succeeds Peabody as head of the firm and changes its name to J.S. Morgan & Co.

1856 – Foundation
On July 16, 1856, the Schweizerische Kreditanstalt (SKA) founded by Alfred Escher, the predecessor to today's Credit Suisse, opens for business. Alfred Escher heads the SKA as the first Chairman of the Board of Directors from 1856-1877 and from 1880-1882.


Discovery of silver in Nevada.


---New York Community Bank  was chartered by the State of New York in Queens, a borough of New York City. 

---Queens County Savings Bank​ -Established on April 14, 1859 in the village of Flushing, Queens County Savings Bank - the forebear of New York Community Bank - was the first savings bank chartered by the State of New York in the New York City borough of Queens.

---Colonel E.L. Drake sinks an oil well in western Pennsylvania. A few years before  that, a professor of chemistry at Yale University had analyzed oil and had come to the conclusion that by very simple and inexpensive processes many valuable products could be manufactured from it.




Secession of Mississippi (January9), Florida (January 10),Alabama (January11), Georgia (January 19), Louisiana (January 26), Texas (February 1). Kansas admitted into the Union, January 29.

Southern Confederacy founded at Montgomery, Alabama, February 4; Jefferson Davis chosen as President.

Abraham Lincoln inaugurated, March 4.

Secession of Virginia (April17), Arkansas (May 6), North Carolina (May 21), and Tennessee (June 8).

Salmon Portland Chase AKA Salmon P. Chase was appointed secretary of the treasury by President Abraham Lincoln. He took office on March 7, 1861. The United States now is divided into two countries: The Confederate States of America, with Jefferson Davis as president; The United States of America, with Abraham Lincoln as president. The Union was in need of revenue as the two countries were headed into war..

Chase implemented a unified nationwide banking system with the National Banking Act, and devised the idea of utilizing paper currency to function as war notes. The "greenback" bills, which came in various denominations, became the basis for the federal paper money system that Americans use today. In order to collect taxes to finance the government's war effort, he also established the Bureau of Internal Revenue, which later became known as the Internal Revenue Service.

--As Treasury Secretary from 1861 to 1864, Salmon Chase raised the $500 million needed to finance the Civil War after striving hard to prevent it’s having to be fought at all. To accomplish this, he sold war bonds with the help of early investment bankers Jay Cooke & Co.

Chase also was the father of our modern paper currency as he created the first "greenback" demand note in 1861. We won’t hold the fact that his own face appeared on many of these notes against him. Chase is said to have personally made the decision to have "In God We Trust" added to the bills as well.


---The oil industry was developed largely by John D. Rockefeller, who in 1862 invested his first earnings in the oil refining business.

--- In order to further finance the war, the Bureau of Engraving and Printing was established in 1862 to print the Government's first currency, known as greenback because of its color. These were legal tender notes not backed by specie. Chase disapproved in principle of the legal tender notes; with no requirement for specie backing they could be printed in unlimited quantities and were therefore inflationary. He recognized their necessity in a time of emergency, but later, as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, he would declare the notes unconstitutional.


This is where the American people started getting robbed

National bank system established.

U.S. Bank   
Concentration: All Other Specialization > 1 Billion
Established: 1863-07-13
FDIC Insurance: 1934-01-01
Holden By: U.S. Bancorp
Charter Class: Commercial bank, national (federal) charter and Fed member, supervised by the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC)




Kidder was founded in Boston on April 1, 1865, by Henry Kidder, Francis Peabody and Oliver Peabody. When the firm first opened, it advertised "banking, brokerage and exchange business." - See more at:

President Lincoln shot by an assassin, April 14; dies a few hours later.

Andrew Johnson inaugurated President, April 15.

Rockefeller organized the firm of Rockefeller and Andrews.  Very early John D. Rockefeller saw the advantage of large-scale operations and, together with H. M. Flagler, worked to secure more effective consolidation.





Check for the Purchase of Alaska

Cancelled check in the amount of $7.2 million, for the purchase of Alaska, issued August 1, 1868; Records of the Accounting Officers of the Department of the Treasury; Record Group 217; National Archives.

With this check, the United States purchased Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million. For less than 2 cents an acre, the United States acquired nearly 600,000 square miles

Bought from Russia by US Government in 1867 for 2 cents per acre ($7.3 million). The US military are a major landowner, with around 2 million acres, and are responsible for about 18,000 jobs in Alaska. The main industry is oil, which produces state revenues of over $2 billion pa, from about 15.7 million acres leased to American and British oil compaines. The US Government estimates that there are 15 million acres of agricultural land in Alaska, of which under 1 million acres are currently cultivated. There are five main groups of native people in Alaska, which takes its name from the Aleut word for ‘great land’: Alyeska. Many of the native peoples have Russian surnames from the period of Russian colonisation (c. 1690-1867). The main groups of native people are: the North coast indians, the Inupiaqs, the Yupiks, the Aleuts and the Athabascan Indians.


[Alaska's] main oil companies with the 15 million acres of leases are: Chevron, BP Exploration, Exxonmobil, Marathon, Phillips, Shell, totalFina and Unocal.


The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. is a leading global investment banking, securities and investment management firm that provides a wide range of financial services to a substantial and diversified client base that includes corporations, financial institutions, governments and high-net-worth individuals. Founded in 1869, the firm is headquartered in New York and maintains offices in all major financial centers around the world.

T. Mellon & Sons' Bank is established in 1869. When patriarch Thomas retires in 1882, his sons Andrew and Richard are there to take over the family business. In 1902, the name is changed to Mellon National Bank and joins the national banking system.


1870 – First Representative Office
The first Credit Suisse foreign representative office is established in New York.

---In 1870 Rockefeller organized the Standard Oil Company of Ohio, with a capital stock of $1,000,000. The company issued 10,000 shares,  at $100 each, which were held by Rockefeller, his brother William, and other associates.

To secure economy of operation and avoid wasteful competition, Rockefeller conceived a plan which he called "co-operation and conservation." He believed that under one leadership many industries could be combined, and the less economical ones eliminated. John D. Rockefeller thought that oil should be kept off the market at times of oversupply,  to stabilize prices.


UNITED STATES is a Corporation - There are Two Constitutions - Sovereignty

The increasing political control of wealth was pointed out as early as 1871 by Henry Ward Beecher when he stated that "We are in more danger from overgrown pecuniary interests [that is, from organized money] than we ever were from slavery." He also said that the battle of the future " will be one of gold and silver." [The Development of America, by Fremont P.Wirth, Professor of History, George Peabody College for Teachers, Nashville, Tennessee, copyright 1936,1937,1938,1939,1940,1941,1942,1943,1944,1945,1946,1947,1948 ,page 428]

J. Pierpont Morgan and Philadelphia banker Anthony Drexel form a private merchant banking partnership in New York called Drexel, Morgan & Co. This is the earliest partnership that evolves into J.P. Morgan.


 Third National Bank and Trust Company of Scranton  Established: April 15, 1872

1872: Deutsche Bank is represented in New York with a limited partner's holding of $ 500,000 in Knoblauch & Lichtenstein.

-In 1872, Alpheus Branch and Thomas Jefferson Hadley, private bankers, created Branch and Hadley.


1873: The Scottish American Investment Trust, a Robert Fleming & Co. predecessor firm, is formed.

Salmon Chase died at the the age of 65 in 1873 and the Chase Manhattan Bank (now a part of JPMorgan Chase) was named in his honor. 


Roslyn Savings Bank- Established in 1875, The Roslyn Savings Bank was the first financial institution to be headquartered in  Nassau County, New York.


1876 – Paradeplatz
After a construction period of three years, SKA moves into the new building on Paradeplatz, which was designed by the famous architect Jakob Friedrich Wanner, on September 25, 1876.


Chase National Bank was formed in 1877 by John Thompson. The Chase National Bank acquired a number of smaller banks in the 1920s, through its Chase Securities Corporation. In 1926, for instance, it acquired Mechanics and Metals National Bank. In 1955, Chase National Bank and The Manhattan Company merged to create Chase Manhattan Bank.

Bank of Hawaii Corporation is a regional financial services company serving businesses, consumers and governments in Hawaii, American Samoa and the West Pacific. The Company's principal subsidiary, Bank of Hawaii, was founded in 1897 and is the largest independent financial institution in Hawaii.


U.S. Trust serves as Corporate Trustee for the Panama Canal.


Nelson Aldrich of Rhode Island rose from the position of grocery clerk to become one of the most powerful senators of his era. Elected to the Senate in 1881, he chaired the Committee on Finance from 1898 to 1911, becoming an influential expert on the economy.

He sponsored the Aldrich-Vreeland Act which established the National Monetary Commission. His Aldrich Plan, providing for flexible cash reserves, was the forerunner of the Federal Reserve System.

Although Aldrich rarely spoke on the Senate floor, preferring the more casual atmosphere of the committee room, by the turn of the 20th century he became the leading figure in the Republican caucus and was one of the Senate Four, a powerful group of Republican senators who dominated the institution for a decade.

President Theodore Roosevelt referred to him as the “King Pin” of the Republican Party. Aldrich “did not bother with oratorical display,” wrote one historian, “but relied upon his charm, his commanding appearance, his superior mind, his ability to speak forthrightly, and his exceptional memory” to influence Senate action. Patriarch to a political family, Aldrich’s grandson, Nelson Rockefeller, became vice president and his great-grandson, Jay Rockefeller, became a U.S. senator.



 When patriarch  [Thomas] Mellon retires in 1882, his sons Andrew and Richard are there to take over the family business [T. Mellon& Sons Bank].


  Second National Bank Established: July 03, 1883

 1883: Deutsche Bank acquires a substantial holding in Northern Pacific Railroad Company.


Jekyll Island Club

 Jekyll Island Club  was incorporated on December 9, 1885. Members include  such famous names as Henry Hyde, Marshall Field, John Pierpont Morgan, Joseph Pulitzer,William K. Vanderbilt, and Nelson W. Aldrich .Later it will include  John D. Rockefeller (Standard Oil).




The Jekyll Island Club Hotel was originally built in 1886 as a hunting retreat for America's wealthy elite including J.P. Morgan, William Rockefeller, Joseph Pulitzer, as well as the Vanderbilts, Goulds and Astors.

Richmond County Savings Bank- A member of the NYCB Family of Banks since July 2001, Richmond County Savings Bank has been serving those who live and work on Staten Island since October 30, 1886. The Bank made its first home mortgage loan on March 4, 1887.



The Bank of Charleston become a Federal Depository.

1887: Jarvis Conklin Mortgage & Trust Company, a predecessor firm, opens in London

 In 1887, Branch bought Hadley’s interest in the bank for $81,000 and changed its name to Branch and Company, Bankers.


In 1888 the Republican party declared itself in opposition to "combinations of capital,  organized as trusts or otherwise, " and the Democratic party platform said, " the interests of the people are betrayed when trusts and combinations are permitted to exist." [The Development of America,+Wirth, page 434]


President Harrison, in his message of December, 1889, pointed out that trusts in the nature of conspiracies should be made a subject of study by Congress; and on July 2, 1890, Congress, under the authority given it by the interstate commerce clause of the Constitution, enacted the Sherman Antitrust Law.  By provisions of this law combinations and conspiracies" in restraint of trade or commerce among the several States, or with foreign nations," are declared illegal and punishable by fine or imprisonment. [The Development of America ,Wirth, page 434]

In 1889, the state of New Jersey passed a law legalizing holding companies by permitting them to incorporate in that state.  Many of the companies then changed their form and moved their home offices to New Jersey.[The Development of America ,Wirth, page 434]

 In 1889, Branch, his father-in-law Gen. Barnes, Hadley, J.F. Bruton, R.L. Thompson and Walter Brodie secured a charter from the North Carolina Legislature to operate the Wilson Banking and Trust Company (later amended to the State Bank of Wilson and later to The Branch Banking Company). However, the charter was not implemented until 1900.


Sherman Antitrust Act 1890

1890 – Leading Position
From the end of the 19th century, SKA plays a leading role in the Swiss underwriting and syndication business. It has the opportunity more often than the competition to be the key player in underwriting syndicates.

1890: J. Pierpont Morgan becomes senior partner of J.S. Morgan & Co. in London.

In 1900, Branch and Company, Bankers, was sold to Branch Banking and Company, holder of the state charter.


The state of Ohio brought suit against the Standard Oil Company, and the court decided, in 1882, that the act of incorporation was illegal in that state. A similar suit was brought against the Standard Oil Company in the state of New York.   Because of state and Federal laws against the trusts, the Standard Oil Trust was dissolved in 1892.

Many trusts and large corporations----often called "big business"---found it necessary to reorganize and to conform to law.   Combinations, however, did not cease to exist; they merely changed their form.   They obeyed the letter but not the spirit of the law.    In place of trusts, big businesses now became organized as holding companies. [page 434]


1892: Guaranty Trust (a predecessor firm) opens a representative office, mostly for correspondent banking. It becomes a full service branch in 1897.

Roachdale Bank & Trust Company opened for business on October 7, 1892, in Roachdale, Indiana. During the Great Depression of the 1930's, Roachdale Bank was closed only one day. On December 16, 1931, two men, armed with machine guns and sawed-off shotguns, blew the safe of the Roachdale Bank and escaped with $4,500 in currency and bonds. All of the glass was blown out of the front windows and furniture was torn and splintered. The damage was estimated at $1,000.


  1893: After the collapse of Pacific Railroad Company Deutsche Bank sets up a reorganization committee.

  Alpheus Branch died Jan. 3, 1893.

 J.P. Morgan is primary financier of U.S. railroads.

It was in 1893 that Peter Cushman Jones, a 60-year-old businessman, persuaded close friends Joseph Ballard Atherton and Charles Montague Cooke to join him in organizing a new bank in the Islands.


J. Pierpont Morgan, Sr. becomes senior partner. The New York firm is renamed J.P. Morgan & Co.

Roosevelt Savings Bank was established in 1895 on the corner of Gates Avenue and Broadway in Brooklyn, under the name "Eastern District Savings Bank." In 1920, the name was changed to honor the memory of the nation's 26th president, Theodore Roosevelt.


By 1896 the Northern Pacific has been restructured.

Barclays formed through a merger of 20 banks              


Morgan Guaranty Trust Company of New York
FDIC Certificate #: 637
Status: Inactive
Closing history: Merger - Without Assistance
Acquiring institution: JPMorgan Chase Bank, National Association (#628)
Federal Reserve ID: 161415
Date Established: January 01, 1897
Bank Charter Class: Commercial bank, state charter and Fed member, supervised by the Federal Reserve (FRB)
Offices: 3 (Interstate: No)
FDIC's unique #: 418
Numeric code: 13
Regulator: FED

1897 – Pension Funds
In 1897 the Board of Directors of the SKA creates a pension fund, which provides its employees with benefits after their retirement. In 1919 the SKA creates a pension fund in the form of a cooperative.

1897: Bank of Hawaii is the first chartered and incorporated bank to do business in the Republic of Hawaii on December 27. The charter is issued by James A. King, Minister of the Interior of the Republic of Hawaii, and signed by Sanford Ballard Dole, president of the Republic.

1897: With Peter Cushman Jones serving as Bank of Hawaii’s first president, the bank opens for business with $400,000 in capital with its stock at par value of $100.


Barclays helps finance two of the world's fastest passenger ships                 

President McKinley, whose popularity was heightened by the victory of the United States in the Spanish-American war, was easily returned to a second term in the election of 1900. His running mate was Theodore Roosevelt, Governor of New York.


---In September 1991,less than a year McKinley’s presidency was cut short by an assassin's bullet delivered in Buffalo, New York....He lingered for eight days finally succumbing to gangrene and infection on September 14 with the words "it is God's way, his will, not ours, be done." 

---With the assassination of President McKinley, Theodore Roosevelt, not quite 43, became the youngest President in the Nation's history. He brought new excitement and power to the Presidency, as he vigorously led Congress and the American public toward progressive reforms and a strong foreign policy.

He took the view that the President as a "steward of the people" should take whatever action necessary for the public good unless expressly forbidden by law or the Constitution." I did not usurp power," he wrote, "but I did greatly broaden the use of executive power."

---J.P. Morgan creates the world's first billion-dollar corporation by buying out industrialist Andrew Carnegie and combining some 33 companies to create United States Steel.


  Corporate Profile
Peoples Bancorp Inc. ("Peoples",Nasdaq: PEBO) is a diversified financial services holding company that makes available a complete line of banking, trust and investment, insurance, premium financing and equipment leasing solutions through its subsidiaries. Peoples has been headquartered in Marietta, Ohio since 1902. Peoples had $7.3 billion in total assets and 130 locations as of March 31, 2023, including 113 full-service Peoples Bank branches in Ohio, West Virginia, Kentucky, Virginia, Washington D.C. and Maryland. On May 1, 2023, Peoples announced that it had completed its acquisition of Limestone Bancorp, Inc. ("Limestone") (Nasdaq: LMST), effective as of April 30, 2023. As of March 31, 2023, Limestone had $1.5 billion in total assets and 20 locations in Kentucky. Peoples' vision is to be the Best Community Bank in America.

Peoples is a member of the Russell 3000 index of U.S. publicly-traded companies. Peoples offers services through Peoples Bank (which includes the divisions of Limestone Bank, Peoples Investment Services, Peoples Premium Finance and North Star Leasing), Peoples Insurance Agency, LLC and Vantage Financial LLC.


London Stock Exchange listing

Citi first established operations in China when it opened its Shanghai office in 1902. As the first American bank to fly the red, white and blue flag in China, Citi became known as Hua Qi Yin Hang, literally, the “Flower Flag Bank”. In the modern era, China remains one of Citi's greatest priorities.

NOTE: Citibank (USA) says it got its beginning as City Bank in 1912........Am I the only one who see's it impossible for Citibank to have gotten its beginning in the US?????????

NOTE:  7 institution history record(s) found.
Event Date Historical Event
1917-04-25 FIRST NATIONAL CITY BANK OF NEW YORK located at NEW YORK, NY was established as a National Bank.
1976-03-01 FIRST NATIONAL CITY BANK was renamed to CITIBANK, N.A. and moved to 5 WALL STREET NEW YORK, NY.
1978-12-30 CITIBANK, N.A. moved to 55 WALL STREET NEW YORK, NY.
1990-07-05 CITIBANK, N.A. moved to 399 PARK AVENUE NEW YORK, NY.
2006-10-01 CITIBANK, N.A. moved to 3900 PARADISE ROAD, SUITE 127 LAS VEGAS, NV.
2011-07-01 CITIBANK, N.A. moved to 701 EAST 60TH STREET NORTH SIOUX FALLS, SD. 

 In 1902, the name[T.Mellon & Sons Bank] is changed to Mellon National Bank and joins the national banking system.


J.P. Morgan & Co. was appointed as fiscal agent for the newly independent Republic of Panama in 1903 and was subsequently selected by the U.S. Treasury Secretary to arrange the transfer of $40 million from the U.S. government to the French Panama Canal Co. This was the largest real estate deal at the time. 


1905 – First Branch
Credit Suisse takes over the office of Oberrheinische Bank in Basel in 1905, resulting in the opening of the first Credit Suisse branch outside Zurich.


Bank of Italy, today known as Bank of America, provides loans to citizens of San Francisco to rebuild after the earthquake.

J.P. Morgan is central to the creation of U.S. Steel, GE and AT&T. 


During the financial panic of 1907, J. Pierpont Morgan saves several trust companies and a leading brokerage house from insolvency, bails out New York City, and rescues the New York Stock Exchange.

In 1907, the stock market and world markets crashed, spurred largely by huge insurance company loses after the San Francisco fire of 1906. Led by J.P. Morgan and John D. Rockefeller, The Clearing House stepped in by lending money to banks, to the stock exchange and to the City of New York until the panic subsided. Not long after this great panic, The Federal Reserve was formed and The Clearing House’s role evolved to become a proactive resource to promote common interests and help shape the U.S. banking industry.


The Aldrich–Vreeland Act was passed in response to the Panic of 1907 and established the National Monetary Commission, which recommended the Federal Reserve Act of 1913.

On May 27, 1908, the bill passed the House on a mostly party-line vote of 166–140, with 13 Republicans voting against it and no Democrats voting for it. On May 30, it passed in the Senate with 43 Republicans in favor and five Republicans joining 17 Democrats opposed. President Roosevelt signed the bill that same night.

The act also allowed national banks to start national currency associations in groups of ten or more , with at least $5 million in total capital, to issue emergency currency. These bank notes were not to be backed by just government bonds, but also just about any securities the banks were holding.

The act proposed that this emergency currency had to go through a process of approval by the officers of these national currency associations, and then once approved were distributed by the Comptroller of the Currency. However, it is possible that because there was a 5 percent tax placed on this emergency currency for the first month it was "outstanding" and a 1 percent increase for the following months it was "outstanding," no bank notes were issued. Another possible explanation why the emergency currency never issued might have been because it wasn't necessary to do so.

Congress modified and extended the law in 1914 when British and other foreign creditors demanded immediate payments, in gold , of amounts which would ordinarily have been carried over and paid through exports of commodities.

Senator Nelson W. Aldrich (R-RI) was largely responsible for the Aldrich-Vreeland Currency Law, and he became the Chairman of the National Monetary commission. The co-sponsor of the legislation was Rep. Edward Vreeland, a Republican from New York. A usage of the law occurred at the outbreak of the World War I in 1914 when the first great financial panic of the twentieth century befell the world, necessitating the closure of the New York Stock Exchange. Secretary of the Treasury William Gibbs McAdoo appeared in New York City
and assured the public that ample stocks of emergency bank notes had been prepared in accordance with the Aldrich–Vreeland Act and were available for issue to the banks. As of October 23, 1914, $368,616,990 was outstanding.

The Federal Reserve Act of December 23, 1913 took effect in November, 1914 when the 12 regional banks opened for business. Ultimately the emergency currency issued under the Aldrich-Vreeland Law was entirely withdrawn.


On the evening of November 22, 1910, seven of the riches men , together representing about one fourth the world's wealth at the time, left Hoboken, New Jersey on a train in complete secrecy, dropping their last names in favor of first names, or code names, so no one would discover who they all were. The excuse for such powerful representatives and wealth was to go on a duck hunting trip on Jekyll Island.

1. Nelson W. Aldrich, Republican "whip" in the Senate, Chairman
of the National Monetary Commission, business associate of J.P.
Morgan, father-in-law to John D. Rockefeller, Jr.;
2. Abraham Piatt Andrew, Assistant Secretary of the United States
3. Frank A. Vanderlip, president of the National City Bank of New
York, the most powerful of the banks at that time, representing
William Rockefeller and the international investment banking
house of Kuhn, Loeb & Company;
4. Henry P. Davison, senior partner of the J.P. Morgan Company;
5. Charles D. Norton, president of J.P. Morgan's First National Bank
of New York;
6. Benjamin Strong, head of J.P. Morgan's Bankers Trust Company;
7. Paul M. Warburg, a partner in Kuhn, Loeb & Company, a
representative of the Rothschild banking dynasty in England
and France, and brother to Max Warburg who was head of the
Warburg banking consortium in Germany and the Netherlands.

1910 – Paris
SKA opens a representative office in Paris for its international safekeeping account clients.

1910: J.S. Morgan becomes Morgan Grenfell & Co.


International Business Machines Corporation (IBM or the company) was incorporated in the State of New York on June 16, 1911, as the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Co. (C-T-R), a consolidation of the Computing Scale Co. of America, the Tabulating Machine Co. and The International Time Recording Co. of New York. Since that time, IBM has focused on the intersection of business insight and technological innovation, and its operations and aims have been international in nature. This was signaled over 85 years ago, in 1924, when C-T-R changed its name to International Business Machines Corporation.


The City Bank of New York was formed on June 16th, 1812, after overcoming many obstacles and political maneuverings. Led by Samuel Osgood, a far-sighted elder statesman who believed in expanding trade across borders, the bank let New York compete with Boston, Baltimore and Philadelphia for the nation's business.

Citigroup SUBSIDIARIES OF THE COMPANY exhibit21-01.htm


NOTE: Citibank (China) was opened in 1902. 

NOTE: 7 institution history record(s) found.

Event Date Historical Event
1917-04-25 FIRST NATIONAL CITY BANK OF NEW YORK located at NEW YORK, NY was established as a National Bank.
1976-03-01 FIRST NATIONAL CITY BANK was renamed to CITIBANK, N.A. and moved to 5 WALL STREET NEW YORK, NY.
1978-12-30 CITIBANK, N.A. moved to 55 WALL STREET NEW YORK, NY.
1990-07-05 CITIBANK, N.A. moved to 399 PARK AVENUE NEW YORK, NY.
2006-10-01 CITIBANK, N.A. moved to 3900 PARADISE ROAD, SUITE 127 LAS VEGAS, NV.
2011-07-01 CITIBANK, N.A. moved to 701 EAST 60TH STREET NORTH SIOUX FALLS, SD. 


1912-12-31 PRIMERICA CORPORATION located at 65 EAST 55TH STREET, NEW YORK, NY was established as a Domestic Entity Other.


The Federal Reserve System IS CREATED 1913

Federal Reserve Members


The Class A stock of the Federal Reserve has not been sold or traded on the open market since it was hermetically sealed from the public at the end of the summer of 1914.

1914: The opening of a Deutsche Bank branch in New York fails.

Clayton Antitrust Act


J.P. Morgan arranges the biggest foreign loan in history – a $500 million Anglo/French loan.





At the intersection of Field and Grand Streets in Waterbury is the former Waterbury National Bank Building, now the headquarters for Junior Achievement of Southwestern New England. Built in 1919-1922. The Chase family had a long association with the Waterbury National Bank, which was founded in 1848 and was Waterbury’s first bank. The Bank’s original building was located at Grand and Bank Streets, giving the latter thoroughfare its name. Henry S. Chase intended the new bank building to be part of his plan for an impressive Waterbury municipal center. Henry died in 1918 and his brother Irving Chase assumed management of construction, utilizing Cass Gilbert, the same architect who had designed the Chase Brass and Copper Company’s headquarters, also located on Grand Street.    


New York Commercial Bank traces its roots to the mid 1920s, when our Atlantic Bank division was established to meet the needs of consumers and small businesses in the city of New York. Today, New York Commercial Bank has 30 branches, including 18 that operate under the name Atlantic Bank.


Barclays invests in William Morris, helping him to become the biggest UK car manufacturer


1/1/1924 Roosevelt Federal Savings and Loan Association (28389)was established.


Barclays Bank D.C.O. is established with over 1,350 offices across 41 countries.


Note: Corporate documents for The United States Corporation are on file in the State of Florida. 

1925: Central Union Trust Co. (a predecessor firm) opens a representative office. The office becomes a full service branch in 1938. 


In 1926 the Bank of Charleston merged with local banks in Greenville and Columbia to form the South Carolina National Bank, which will be absorbed by Wachovia in the mid-1990s.


1927: The Dillon, Read & Co. bank places a $ 25 million bond by Deutsche Bank on the American market.

Guaranty Trust Company, a predecessor firm of J.P. Morgan, pioneers the concept of American Depositary Receipts (ADRs), which enables Americans to invest in foreign securities directly on U.S. exchanges.


From 1928 to 1946, the $10,000 bill was printed and circulated with Salmon Chase's face on it. 


Albert Gordon , helps pick up the pieces of a shattered Kidder Peabody after the 1929 Wall Street crash.

Two Ohio institutions merge to form City National Bank & Trust, a predecessor of Bank One.

Frank Russell's brother Fred Lee Russell found dead in his car  › ... › 1929 › Jan › 31 › Page 6
Clipping found in The Daily Independent in Murphysboro, Illinois on Jan 31, 1929. Frank Russell's brother Fred Lee Russell found dead in his car. ...



The Bank for International Settlements (BIS) was established as an international financial
institution, enjoying special immunities, pursuant to the Hague Agreements of 20th January 1930.

The founder shareholding members were the central banks of Belgium, France, Germany, Italy,
Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States (the Federal Reserve did not take up its rights as
founder member until 1994).

Within two years of its founding, nineteen other European central
banks had subscribed to the Bank's capital. The Bank opened its doors in Basle, Switzerland on
17th May 1930.


Established on 17 May 1930, the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) is the world's oldest international financial organisation. The BIS has 60 member central banks, representing countries from around the world that together make up about 95% of world GDP.

The head office is in Basel, Switzerland and there are two representative offices: in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China and in Mexico City.


1932 – First Boston Corporation
The First Boston Corporation is founded as a subsidiary of The First National Bank of Boston. In 1934 the First Boston Corporation becomes the first publicly held investment bank in the US.



Securities Act of 1933


Securities Exchange Act of 1934

Since 1934, the SEC has required disclosure in forms and documents. In 1984, EDGAR began collecting electronic documents to help investors get information. The SEC's new system requires data disclosure — the next step to improve how investors find and use information.


Trust Indenture Act of 1939

1939 – Swissam
In July 1939 SKA creates the subsidiary Swiss American Corporation (New York), which focuses on the underwriting and investment business, as well as investment consultancy.


Investment Company Act of 1940

1940 – New York
SKA opens the New York Agency on May 9, 1940.

Despite bomb damage, Barclays branches remain open during the Blitz


1941: Breakdown of all bilateral business relations due to Germany's declaration of war.


The Synagogue Of Satan 1949 ~ 1973, by Andrew Carrington Hitchcock


    United States v. Morgan  The Seventeen Defendant Investment Banking Firms. 1. Morgan Stanley & Co. 2. Kuhn Loeb & Co. 3. Smith Barney & Co. 4. Lehman Brothers. 5. Glore Forgan & Co. 6. Kidder Peabody & Co. 7. Goldman Sachs & Co. 8. White Weld & Co. 9. Eastman Dillon & Co. 10. Drexel & Co. 11. The First Boston Corporation *626 12. Dillon Read & Co. Inc. 13. Blyth & Co., Inc. 14. Harriman Ripley & Co., Incorporated. 15. Stone & Webster Securities Corporation. 16. Harris Hall & Company (Incorporated). 17. Union Securities Corporation

1.  Morgan Stanley & Co.- It is not coincidental that JPMorgan and Morgan Stanley share the ‘Morgan’ name. The firm today known as Morgan Stanley was founded in 1935, essentially as a spin-off from the original JPMorgan. This came about following the passage of the Glass-Steagal Act in 1933, which prohibited firms from conducting investment banking business under the same roof as commercial and consumer banking business.

Therefore, Henry S. Morgan (grandson of J. Pierpont Morgan, founder of the eponymous firm) joined together with Harold Stanley and select other partners to found Morgan Stanley as an investment banking concern. Since Morgan Stanley’s founding, it has evolved entirely independently of the latter day JPMorgan Chase Co.

Chase Bank is also part of the picture - but represents just one thread of an almost impenetrably complex web of bank mergers and acquisitions over the last century and more.

Chase Bank was formed from the merger of Chase National Bank and The Manhattan Company in 1955, originally becoming Chase Manhattan Bank.

In 1996, Chemical Bank (then the 3rd largest bank in the United States by assets) acquired Chase Manhattan (retiring the ‘Chemical’ name in the process), before merging in 2000 with JPMorgan & Co. to form today’s JPMorgan Chase Co.

Clear so far?

If you want to take a further trip down the rabbit hole of banking history (and, truly, it’s quite interesting if you like that sort of thing) you might look up yet another banking concern to bear the Morgan name: Morgan, Grenfell & Co. Part of the modern day Deutsche Bank, the ‘Morgan’ in this instance refers to Junius Spencer Morgan (father of J.P.)


You Will Fall Like Over Ripe Fruit into our Hands [video below]

(Communist hands)




The Manhattan Company merged with Chase National Bank in 1955 to form the Chase Manhattan Bank.  


 Edwin Sibley Webster Jr. 57, banker Kidder, Peabody Co. found dead  from gun shot wounds



Barclays appoints the UK's first ever female branch manager


-Early in 1959 the board of governors of the federal reserve system turned down requests from certain commercial banks to raise the rate ceiling from 3% on time deposits. Such a rate was subject to competitive pressure from mutual savings banks and savings and loan associations and from high yields on short-term government securities. ...

The repeal by Congress of Section 13b of the Federal Reserve act became effective Aug. 21, 1959. As of that date, therefore, the federal reserve banks were no longer authorized to grant commitments to, and participate with, financing institutions in providing working capital for established industrial and commercial businesses, or to make direct loans or commitments to such businesses. (Britannica Book of the Year 1960, events  of 1959,page 253,Federal Reserve System)

-He mentioned the Banking and Currency Committee going to conference over the housing authority which allows for backdoor borrowing--"We won't have anybody in there to fight it." Banking and Currency is in favor, and the Senate is in favor--even though the House, on the floor, tacked on the Thomas amendment to take this authority to borrow out of the bill--it will get sacked in the committee because the committee in conference is opposed to the amendment--he was extremely exercised about backdoor borrowing and the lack of overall control over appropriations.


1962 – White Weld
In 1962, Credit Suisse takes over White, Weld and Co. AG, Zurich, from the American investment bank, White Weld, New York. The acquisition is re-named Clariden Finanz AG.





1964 – Full-Service Bank
Credit Suisse is granted a license as a full-service bank, allowing it to take deposits and carry out all other types of banking in the USA.

--Barclays Bank D.C.O. Opens Park Ave. Branch; British Unit's Vice Chairman Flies From London to Dedicate 1,400th Office BARCLAYS OPENS PARK AVE.

Barclay's Bank D.C.O., Britain's biggest overseas banking organization, ran off another marker on its growth string yesterday with the opening of a new branch office at 300 Park Avenue.


We were founded in 1850 as a joint stock association and were incorporated in 1965 as a New York corporation. American Express Company and its principal operating subsidiary, American Express Travel Related Services Company, Inc. (TRS), are bank holding companies under the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended (the BHC Act), subject to supervision and examination by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (the Federal Reserve).

Our headquarters are located in lower Manhattan, New York, New York. We also have offices in other locations throughout the world.

During 2016, we principally engaged in businesses comprising four reportable operating segments: U.S. Consumer Services, International Consumer and Network Services, Global Commercial Services and Global Merchant Services. Corporate functions and certain other businesses are included in Corporate & Other. You can find information regarding our reportable operating segments, geographic operations and classes of similar services in Note 25 to our “Consolidated Financial Statements.”


Barclays launches the Barclaycard, the UK's first credit card


 We [Barclays] launch the world's first cash machine   


  1968: Deutsche Bank founds European-American Banking Corporation and European-American Bank & Trust Corporation together with other European banks.

1968: Chase Manhattan enters a joint venture with The Bank of Ireland to establish The Chase Bank of Ireland (International) Ltd. Chase takes a 50% interest in the venture.

JPMorgan Chase & Co. ("JPMorgan Chase" or the "Firm", NYSE: JPM), a financial holding company incorporated under Delaware law in 1968, is a leading financial services firm based in the United States of America ("U.S."), with operations worldwide. JPMorgan Chase had $3.7 trillion in assets and $292.3 billion in stockholders' equity as of December 31, 2022. The Firm is a leader in investment banking, financial services for consumers and small businesses, commercial banking, financial transaction processing and asset management. Under the J.P. Morgan and Chase brands, the Firm serves millions of customers, predominantly in the U.S., and many of the world's most prominent corporate, institutional and government clients globally. JPMorgan Chase's principal bank subsidiary is JPMorgan Chase Bank, National Association ("JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A."), a national banking association with U.S. branches in 48 states and Washington, D.C.

   The firm launches Euroclear, a system for the orderly settlement of transactions in Eurobonds.



Address by G. Edward Griffin, given in 1969


1970: The First National Bank of Chicago (a predecessor firm) opens a branch in Dublin at 31 Dame Street. The branch moves to 44/45 St. Stephen’s Green in 1974.


1971: Together with Schweizerische Bankgesellschaft, Deutsche Bank sets up UBS-DB Corporation, New York.


Chase opens a representative office in Moscow, the first Russian presence for a U.S. bank since the 1920s; Chase also becomes the first U.S. correspondent to the Bank of China since the 1949 Chinese revolution.


The Synagogue Of Satan 1974 ~ 1990, by Andrew Carrington Hitchcock


CIA secret weapon of assassination Heart Attack Gun, Declassified 1975



1976  A Study of Corporate and Banking Influence

1976 – Bodenkreditanstalt
The merger with the Schweizerische Bodenkreditanstalt marks the first major step toward growth in mass business and represents a substantial expansion of the sales network and client base.  


1977 – The Chiasso Affair
The Chiasso affair resulted in the biggest loss SKA had suffered in its entire history. The crisis prompted the bank to strike out for new shores and transform itself from a traditional Zurich institution into an international financial services provider.

Personal bankers are introduced to branches


1978: Deutsche Bank acquires the remaining 50% of the capital of UBS-DB corporation. The company is renamed in Atlantic Capital Corporation.


1979: On April 30 Deutsche Bank New York branch opens.

1979: Chase Manhattan purchases the Bank of Ireland’s 50% interest and renames it The Chase Bank (Ireland) Ltd.



 Barclays helps finance the Hong Kong underground

 Predecessor firm Hambrecht & Quist (H&Q) takes Apple Computer public.

The Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation was founded by Scotsman Sir Thomas Sutherland in the then British colony of Hong Kong on 3 March 1865, and in Shanghai a month later, benefiting from the start of trading into China, including opium trading. In 1980, HSBC acquired a 51% shareholding in US-based Marine Midland Bank, which it extended to full ownership in 1987.(information FOUND ON INTERNET)

Event Date Historical Event
1812-06-01 MARINE TRUST COMPANY OF WESTERN NEW YORK located at 241 MAIN STREET, BUFFALO, NY was established as a State Member Bank.
1980-02-01 MARINE MIDLAND BANK was renamed to MARINE MIDLAND BANK, N.A. and changed from State Member  Bank to National Bank.
1993-12-31 MARINE MIDLAND BANK, N.A. was renamed to MARINE MIDLAND BANK and changed from National Bank to State Member Bank.
1999-03-29 MARINE MIDLAND BANK was renamed to HSBC BANK USA and moved to ONE HSBC CENTER BUFFALO, NY.
2004-07-01 HSBC BANK USA was renamed to HSBC BANK USA, NATIONAL ASSOCIATION and moved to 90 CHRISTIANA ROAD NEW CASTLE, DE and changed from State Member Bank to National Bank.


1982: Opening of branches in Los Angeles and Chicago.

1982 – SASI
Swiss American Securities Inc. (SASI), a subsidiary of SKA which was founded in the 1970s, becomes a member of the New York Stock Exchange in November 1982. Thus SKA becomes the first Swiss bank to have a place on the New York Stock Exchange via its subsidiary.

Roberto Calvi  Italian banker found hanging from a London bridge


1983- Citibank Re-entered China with a representative office in Shenzhen



 Citibank  opened Beijing representative office


 Citibank opened Shanghai representative office


Barclays becomes the first UK bank to have its shares listed on both the New York and Tokyo Stock Exchanges

1986: Chase opens an office in Bournemouth.


                         Barclays launches the UK’s first debit card        

Weill Puts Things in Order at Commercial Credit Corporation


 Kidder Faces Life After Siegel


Shenzhen Citibank representative office upgraded to branch

---Citigroup Inc. (Citigroup and, together with its subsidiaries, the Company) is a diversified global financial services holding company whose businesses provide a broad range of financial services to consumer and corporate customers with some 200 million customer accounts doing business in more than 100 countries. Citigroup was incorporated in 1988 under the laws of the State of Delaware.  [see 1998]

1988 – Stake acquired in CSFBI
First Boston Inc. becomes CS First Boston with a takeover of 44.5% of CS First Boston by CS Holding. 1990 sees a takeover of a majority holding of CS First Boston.


 1989 – CS Holding
CS Holding, set up in 1982 as a sister company to SKA, becomes the parent company of the Group.

J.P. Morgan ranks among Fortune's 50 Best Companies for Minorities. The firm is regularly recognized as a leading employer of women, minorities, and LGBT employees.   

Alfred Herrhausen  Chairman of the Deutsche Bank, West Germany's largest bank, was assassinated on the streets of Frankfurt.



1990: Deutsche Bank Government Securities becomes the only German bank to be awarded "primary dealer" status by the Federal Reserve Bank.

 1990 – Bank Leu
Acquisition of Bank Leu.    

 J.P. Morgan plays an active role in the negotiations with Mexico to restructure nearly $50 billion in medium- and long-term commercial bank debt. A first in the market, the new bonds become known as Brady Bonds.


Citibank  upgraded representative office in Shanghai (China) to full branch status

In 1991, Manufacturers Hanover Corp. merged with Chemical Banking Corp., under the name of Chemical Banking Corp., then the second-largest banking institution in the United States.


1992: Deutsche Bank's activities in the USA were consolidated under the umbrella of Deutsche Bank North America Holding.



MAY 1 4 1993
Our Ref. No. 93-117-CC
Kidder Peabody
We would not recommend any enforcement action to the
commission under section 12 (d) (3) of the Investment Company Act
of 1940 (the "1940 Act") if Kidder, Peabody Asset Allocation Fund
(the "Fund"), a series of Kidder, Peabody Investment Trust, a
registered investment company, purchases common stock of General
Electric Company ("GE") as described in your letter..l Our
posi tion is based on the facts and representations stated in your
letter, and your representation that Kidder Peabody's revenues
amounted to 7.05% of GE' s consolidated revenues in 1992, 6.13% in
1991, and 5.6% in 1990. Z/ You should note that different facts
or representations may require a different conclusion. Moreover,
this response expresses the Division's position on enforcement
action only and does not purport to express any legal conclusions
on the questions presented.

Kevin M. £roadwater
.l See Dreyfus Index Fund (pub. avail. Mar. 31, 1992); IBM
Mutual Funds, Inc. (pub. avail. May 18, 1990).
Z/ Telephone conversation between Jon S. Rand and Kevin M.
Broadwater, dated May 7, 1993.

Kidder, Peabody, a broker-dealer registered under the
Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the "Exchange Act"), serves as
the distributor of the Fund' s shares. Kidder Peabody Asset
Management, Inc. ("KPAM"), a wholly-owned SUbsidiary of Kidder,
Peabody, serves as the Fund' s manager and investment adviser
and is a registered investment adviser under the' Investment
Advisers Act of 1940, as amended. General Electric Capital
Services, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of GE, owns all of
the outstanding stock of Kidder, Peabody Group Inc., the parent
company of Kidder, Peabody.


Citibank, The first international bank to move its China headquarters to the mainland from Hong Kong

1993 – Volksbank
Acquisition of Swiss Volksbank.                                

CITIGROUP INC. (1951350) acquires TRAVELERS CORPORATION (1246092) 1993-12-31 The acquired institution sold its assets to the acquiring institution.



On September 13, 1994, the Chairman of the Board of
Governors of the Federal Reserve System assumed the seat on
the Board of Directors of the Bank for International
Settlements (BIS) designated for the central bank of the
United States. The central bank of the United States has
had the right to be represented on the BIS's Board of
Directors since the BIS was established more than sixty
years ago. For a variety of reasons, however, the Federal
Reserve had, until this year, never exercised its right.
The Federal Reserve Board's decision to assume
representation on the BIS's Board was made in recognition
of the increasingly important role of the BIS as the
principal forum for consultation, cooperation, and
information exchange among central bankers and in
anticipation of a broadening of that role. Federal Reserve
membership on the BIS Board marks a new chapter in the
relationship of the Federal Reserve System with the BIS.  

1994 Member Central Banks of the Bank for International
Settlements Country Central bank

1. Australia Reserve Bank of Australia
2. Austria Austrian National Bank
3. Belgium National Bank of Belgium
4. Bulgaria Bulgarian National Bank
5. Canada Bank of Canada
6. Czech Republic Czech National Bank
7. Denmark National Bank of Denmark
8. Estonia Bank of Estonia
9. Finland Bank of Finland
10. France Bank of France
11. Germany German Bundesbank
12. Greece Bank of Greece
13. Hungary National Bank of Hungary
14. Iceland Central Bank of Iceland
15. Ireland Central Bank of Ireland
16. Italy Bank of Italy
17. Japan Bank of Japan
18. Latvia Bank of Latvia
19. Lithuania Bank of Lithuania
20. Netherlands The Netherlands Bank
21. Norway Central Bank of Norway
22. Poland National Bank of Poland
23. Portugal Bank of Portugal
24. Romania National Bank of Romania
25. Slovakia National Bank of Slovakia
26. South Africa South African Reserve Bank
27. Spain Bank of Spain
28. Sweden Bank of Sweden
29. Switzerland Swiss National Bank
30. Turkey Central Bank of the
31. Republic of Turkey
32. United Kingdom Bank of England
33. United States Federal Reserve System
34. Yugoslavia(1) National Bank of Yugoslavia

1994 Basis of
Member membership

Willem F. Duisenberg First European Bank President

President, The Netherlands Bank
Chariman, Board of Directors of the
BIS, and President of the BIS

Carlo Azeglio Ciampi Appointed
Former governor, Bank of Italy
Vice Chairman, Board of Directors
of the BIS

Urban Backstrom Elected
Governor, Bank of Sweden

Bernard Clappier Appointed
Former governor, Bank of France

Antonio Fazio Ex officio
Governor, Bank of Italy

Edward A. J. George Ex officio
Governor, Bank of England

Alan Greenspan Ex officio
Chairman, Board of Governors of the
Federal Reserve System

Lord Kingsdown Appointed
[formerly Robin Leigh-Pemberton]
Former governor, Bank of England

Markus Lusser Elected
President, Swiss National Bank

William J. McDonough Appointed
President, Federal Reserve Bank of
New York

Yasushi Mieno Elected
Governor, Bank of Japan

Helmut Schlesinger Appointed
Former president, German Bundesbank

Jean-Claude Trichet Ex officio
Governor, Bank of France

Hans Tietmeyer Ex officio
President, German Bundesbank

Gordon Thiessen Elected
Governor, Bank of Canada

Alfons Verplaetse Ex officio
Governor, National Bank of Belgium

Philippe Wilmes Appointed
Member of the board of regents,
National Bank of Belgium

1994 – Swiss Re
Launch of strategic alliance with Swiss Re.


Beijing (China) Citibank representative office upgraded to branch

 1995 – NAB
Takeover of Neue Aargauer Bank (NAB).

Kidder Peabody Group Inc. sold

1995-12-31 TRAVELERS INC. was renamed to TRAVELERS GROUP INC. and moved to 388 GREENWICH STREET NEW YORK, NY.

In 1995, First Chicago Corp. merged with NBD Bancorp., forming First Chicago NBD, the largest banking institution based in the Midwest.


1996 – Winterthur
Launch of strategic alliance with Winterthur Group. 1997 sees the merger of Credit Suisse Group with Winterthur.


On March 31, 1996, The Chase Manhattan Corporation ("Old Chase") merged into Chemical Banking Corporation ("Chemical") (the "Merger"). Both Old Chase and Chemical were incorporated in Delaware. 

The firm jointly leads the first “century” bond for a sovereign borrower – a 100-year, $100 million issue for the People’s Republic of China.

In 1996, The Chase Manhattan Corp. merged with Chemical Banking Corp., under the name of The Chase Manhattan Corp., creating what was then the largest bank holding company in the United States.


 1997 – Credit Suisse Group
CS Holding becomes Credit Suisse Group, and begins operational activities on January 1, 1997.

Kevin J. Davis former  Citibank employee goes to work at    Office of Thrift Supervision OTS 

1997-11-26 TRAVELERS GROUP INC. changed from Domestic Entity Other to Savings & Loan Holding Company.


NationsBank acquires BankAmerica Corp to create the first coast-to-coast retail banking franchise - Bank of America

1998: On November 30 Deutsche Bank announces the planned acquisition of Banker's Trust. It is the largest entry a German bank has ever made into the U.S. financial market.

Former  Citibank employee    Darina McKelvie Named Head of External Affairs at OTS

Salomon (NYSE:SB) was acquired by Travelers Group in 1998

Citicorp and Travelers Plan to Merge

1998-10-08 TRAVELERS GROUP INC. was renamed to CITIGROUP INC. and moved to 153 EAST 53RD STREET NEW YORK, NY and changed from Savings & Loan Holding Company to Bank Holding Company.

BALTIMORE, MD was established as a Finance Company.

Citigroup Inc. was formed in October 1998 as a result of the merger between Citicorp and Travelers Group Inc.  [see 1988]

Citigroup President, Heir Apparent to Top Job, Quits Abruptly


Citibank -The first international bank to offer integrated nationwide Renminbi (RMB) cash management
Opened Guangzhou branch

In 1998, Banc One Corp. merged with First Chicago NBD, under the name of Bank One Corp. After a subsequent merger, Bank One became the largest financial services firm in the Midwest, the fourth-largest bank in the U. S. and the world's largest Visa credit card issuer.



1999: On June 4 the acquisition of Bankers Trust is completed.

Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act 1999


 COMMERCIAL CREDIT CORPORATION name was changed to CITIFINANCIAL, INC. ,on 05-27-1999;Entity type: Foreign Corporation;Identification Number: 520278518; Date of Registration in Massachusetts: 09-27-1983

Document Number139497
Date Filed 08/17/1940
Effective Date None
Status Inactive

HSBC expanded its presence in the United States

Citibank- The first international bank to establish a centralized customer service center (in China)

-The 1933 Glass-Steagall Act erected barriers keeping commercial banks separate from investment banks. Its restrictions were repealed in 1999.

End of an era for Goldman

 Edmond Safra billionaire banker ;At the time of his death, Safra  was selling his controlling stakes in both Safra Republic and Republic New York Corp. (RNB) -- banks he founded and often referred to as his "children" -- to Britain's HSBC Holdings for $3 billion.


In 2000, J.P. Morgan & Co. Incorporated merged with The Chase Manhattan Corp., effectively combining four of the largest and oldest money center banking institutions in New York City (J.P. Morgan, Chase, Chemical and Manufacturers Hanover) into one firm under the name of J.P. Morgan Chase & Co.

2000-03-13 CITIGROUP INC. changed from Bank Holding Company to Financial Holding Company - Domestic.
2000-09-11 CITIGROUP INC. moved to 399 PARK AVENUE NEW YORK, NY.

J.P. Morgan merges with The Chase Manhattan Corporation and is named JPMorgan Chase and Co. Four years later, the company merges with Bank One, creating a global financial services leader.


The Chase Manhattan Bank
New York, New York
Order Approving the Merger of Banks
The Chase Manhattan Bank (AChase Bank@), a state member bank,
has applied under section 18(c) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act (12 U.S.C.
' 1828(c)) (the "Bank Merger Act") to merge with Chase Bank of Texas B San
Angelo, National Association, San Angelo, Texas (“Chase Texas”). Chase Bank
would be the surviving institution.1

Bin Laden Family Could Profit From a Jump In Defense Spending Due to Ties to U.S. Bank

2001: On October 3 - three weeks after the terror attacks on September 11 - trading in the Deutsche Bank share starts on the New York Stock Exchange.



Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002

   2002 – New Organizational Structure   
Group organizational structure is streamlined to create two business units: Credit Suisse Financial Services and Credit Suisse First Boston.


  U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission Report of Investigation

2003: Deutsche Bank's US-headquarter moves to 60 Wall Street. The move is the result of an agreement between Deutsche Bank and the World Trade Center Job Creation and Retention program, which provides support for businesses relocating to Lower Manhattan.


Meet the Un-Enron: Banking's Next Top Gun

----Acquisition of Washington Mutual Finance Corporation
On January 9, 2004, Citigroup acquired Washington Mutual Finance Corporation (WMF) for $1.25 billion. WMF was the consumer finance subsidiary of Washington Mutual, Inc. WMF provides direct consumer installment loans and real-estate-secured loans, as well as sales finance and the sale of insurance. The acquisition includes 427 WMF offices located in 26 states, primarily in the Southeastern and Southwestern United States. WMF has more than 2,300 employees and total assets of $3.8 billion. Citicorp has guaranteed all outstanding unsecured indebtedness of WMF in connection with this acquisition.

On February 22, 2004, Citigroup and KorAm Bank announced that they, together with an investor consortium led by The Carlyle Group and JP Morgan Corsair II (the investor consortium), signed an agreement for Citigroup to acquire a controlling interest in KorAm. Based on 2003 revenues, KorAm Bank is the seventh-largest commercial bank in Korea, with 222 domestic branches and total assets of $35.9 billion.

--January 30, 2004   FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM
J.P. Morgan Chase & Co.
New York, New York
Order Approving Acquisition of a Savings Association

---March 26, 2004-  FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM
J. P. Morgan Chase & Co. New York, New York
Notice of Public Meetings
New York, New York Chicago, Illinois
Background and Public Meeting Notice
On February 9, 2004, J. P. Morgan Chase & Co., New York, New York (“JPMorgan Chase”), requested the Board’s approval under the Bank Holding Company Act (12 U.S.C. § 1841 et seq.) (“BHC Act”) to merge with Bank One Corporation, Chicago, Illinois (“Bank One”). The Board hereby orders that public meetings on the JPMorgan Chase/Bank One proposal be held in New York, New York, and Chicago, Illinois.

Barclays Bank PLC London, England
Barclays Bank PLC London, England
Order Approving Notice to Engage in Activities  Complementary to a Financial Activity
Barclays Bank PLC (“Barclays”), a foreign bank that is treated as a financial holding company (“FHC”) for purposes of the Bank Holding Company Act (“BHC Act”), has requested the Board’s approval under section 4 of the BHC Act (12 U.S.C. § 1843) and the Board’s Regulation Y (12 C.F.R. Part 225) to engage in physical commodity trading in the United States. Barclays currently conducts physical commodity trading outside the United States.
 Complementary to a Financial Activity
Barclays Bank PLC (“Barclays”), a foreign bank that is treated as a financial holding company (“FHC”) for purposes of the Bank Holding Company Act (“BHC Act”), has requested the Board’s approval under section 4 of the BHC Act (12 U.S.C. § 1843) and the Board’s Regulation Y (12 C.F.R. Part 225) to engage in physical commodity trading in the United States. Barclays currently conducts physical commodity trading outside the United States.


2005 – One Bank
Credit Suisse implements its One Bank strategy by merging its Credit Suisse legal entities in Switzerland with Credit Suisse First Boston.

JPMorgan Chase & Co. New York, New York Order Approving Notice to Engage in
Activities Complementary to a Financial Activity

CITIGROUP INC. (1951350) acquires CITICORP (1042351) 2005-08-01 The acquired institution sold its assets to the acquiring institution.

CITIGROUP INC. (1951350) acquires CITIGROUP HOLDINGS COMPANY (2879844) 2005-08-01 The acquired institution sold its assets to the acquiring institution.

Seized documents point to Neftyanoi Bank money laundering role

Arthur Zankel   player in the merger of Citibank and Travelers Group insurance company


   2006 – New Integrated Bank     
Credit Suisse celebrates its 150th anniversary. At the same time it begins life as a globally integrated bank. In keeping with its new status it launches a new logo.


CITIGROUP INC. (1951350) acquires  CITIBANK (WEST) BANCORP INC. (3158452) 2006-10-01 The acquired institution sold its assets to the acquiring institution.

CITIGROUP INC. (1951350) acquires CITIBANK (WEST) HOLDINGS INC. (3158395) 2006-10-01 The acquired institution sold its assets to the acquiring institution.

Andrei Kozlov (Sept) a Central Bank official who oversaw efforts to clean up the Russia's murky banking industry,murdered.


 2007-The number of state banks increased from  246 [in 1815] to 21725 . The following is a list of all banks in the state of "All States" with ratings as listed.     

2007- Bank of America acquires U.S. Trust 

NOTE:   Bank of America, N.A. and U.S. Trust Company of Delaware (collectively the "Bank") do not serve in a fiduciary capacity with respect to all products or services. Fiduciary standards or fiduciary duties do not apply, for example, when the Bank is offering or providing credit solutions, banking, custody or brokerage products/services or referrals to other affiliates of the Bank. 
 2007 – Clariden Leu Merger of the four independent Credit Suisse private banks, Clariden, Bank Leu, Bank Hofmann, and Banca di Gestione Patrimoniale to form Clariden Leu.                                  


“Citigroup” means Citigroup Inc., a corporation duly organized and validly existing under the laws of the State of Delaware, United States.   [Bank of Chile]    

CITIGROUP INC. (1951350) acquires CITIGROUP JAPAN INVESTMENTS LLC (3609114) 2007-07-05 The acquired institution sold its assets to the acquiring institution.

--January 22, 2007 01:00 AM Eastern Standard Time
NEW YORK--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Citigroup announced today that it will acquire ABN AMRO Mortgage Group (AAMG), a national originator and servicer of prime residential mortgage loans. Citigroup will purchase approximately $9 billion in net assets and ABN AMRO Mortgage Group’s approximately $224 billion mortgage servicing portfolio. ABN AMRO Mortgage Group’s primary originations business is via wholesale lending under the InterFirst brand. ABN AMRO Mortgage Group is a subsidiary of LaSalle Bank Corporation and ABN AMRO Bank N.V. and is headquartered in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Terms of the transaction were not disclosed.

Citigroup, the leading global financial services company, has some 200 million customer accounts and does
business in more than 100 countries, providing consumers, corporations, governments and institutions with a
broad range of financial products and services, including consumer banking and credit, corporate and investment
banking, securities brokerage, and wealth management. Major brand names under Citigroup's trademark red umbrella include Citibank, CitiFinancial, Primerica, Smith Barney and Banamex. Additional information may be found at

2007: Bank of America acquires U.S. Trust

-Abu Dhabi Investment Authority invested $7.5 billion in Citigroup Inc. The fund, known as ADIA, agreed to buy the equivalent of 4.9 percent of Citigroup. A year later Citibank was bailed out at the cost of $45 billion to the American tax payers.

Olivant Advisors Ltd - Statement re Northern Rock  [see 2008 Kirk Stephenson]

Keith Gores  Banking executive ,vice president at Marshall & Ilsley Bank  


In 2008, JPMorgan Chase & Co. acquired The Bear Stearns Companies Inc., strengthening its capabilities across a broad range of businesses, including prime brokerage, cash clearing and energy trading globally.
Also in 2008, JPMorgan Chase & Co. acquired the deposits, assets and certain liabilities of Washington Mutual's banking operations. This acquisition expanded Chase's consumer branch network into California, Florida and Washington State and created the nation's second-largest branch network — with locations reaching 42% of the U.S. population.

2008: J.P. Morgan plays an important role in helping manage the credit crisis through the acquisition of Bear Stearns.

                                   see 2014 death  Mike Dueker

 JPMorgan Chase & Co. acquires The Bear Stearns Companies Inc., strengthening its capabilities across a broad range of businesses, including prime brokerage, cash clearing and energy trading globally.

-ProLogis to Participate in Citigroup's 2008 Global Property CEO Conference.

-Citibank was bailed out at the cost of $45 billion to the American tax payers.

-On September 21, 2008, Goldman Sachs and Morgan Stanley, the last two major investment banks in the United States, both confirmed that they would become traditional bank holding companies, bringing an end to the era of investment banking on Wall Street.The Federal Reserve's approval of their bid to become banks ended the ascendancy of the securities firms, 75 years after Congress separated them from deposit-taking lenders, and capped weeks of chaos that sent Lehman Brothers into bankruptcy and led to the rushed sale of Merrill Lynch & Co. to Bank of America Corp.


--- This action arises out of improper accounting  practices at The BISYS Group, Inc.

Kirk Stephenson   millionaire financier ;  chief operating officer of   Olivant Advisers . 2.5 per cent stake in Swiss banking giant UBS (Swiss Bank Corporation). There has been persistent speculation in the financial world that UBS has written off billions after being exposed to the US mortgage market.

Christen Schnor    top  HSBC banker  (The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Limited, which was established in 1865 to finance the growing trade between Europe, India and China)

Thierry Magon de la Villehuchet   the former CEO of Credit Lyonnais Securities    .(The company Access International Advisors and Marketers (AIA Group) was co-founded in 1994 by French bankers, yachtsman René-Thierry Magon de la Villehuchet and Patrick Littaye. Philippe Junot, the first husband of Princess Caroline of Monaco, was a partner of the company.)


list of the central banks of the world

Uploaded on Jul 21, 2009[above video]

This is Congressman Alan Grayson questioning Federal Reserve Chairman Ben Bernanke on $550B of loans to foreigners (or 'central liquidity swaps' in Federal Reserve-ese').

Alan Grayson: "Which Foreigners Got the Fed's $500,000,000,000?" Bernanke: "I Don't Know."

Which financial institutions received this money? Bernanke's answer: I don't know.

As the Fed was lending this money, the dollar increased by 30% in value. Grayson asks, was this a coincidence? Bernanke's answer: yes


Senator Sanders asks Bernanke WHERE IS THE MONEY

-----Goldman Sachs Group Inc (GS.N) media sector banker Joseph Ravitch is leaving the company. Ravitch  was a driving force behind a number of media deals, including the creation of the YES television network, the formation of the NBA China joint partnership, and the sale of the New Jersey Nets and Seattle Supersonics basketball clubs

ADIA, which doesn’t give the value of its assets, filed a complaint against Citigroup in 2009, saying it made “fraudulent misrepresentations” about the deal.

-The acquisition was completed in January 2009 and Merrill Lynch & Co., Inc. was merged into Bank of America Corporation, although certain Bank of America subsidiaries continue to carry the Merrill Lynch name, including the broker-dealer Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith. Bank of America also takes over Merrill's nearly 50 percent stake in the powerful money manager BlackRock Inc (BLK.N).

L Sunil Shankar Goud   assistant manager of HSBC Bank

Anjool Malde  Banker (Deutsche Bank) internships at the City solicitors Slaughter-and May and the finance house ABN Amro.

Huibert Gerald Boumeester  Banker (ABN)

2010   This Act may be cited as the ‘‘Dodd-Frank
Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act’’.


J.P. Morgan Cazenove becomes a wholly-owned part of J.P. Morgan, having originally operated as a joint venture between J.P. Morgan and the U.K. investment bank Cazenove.


(above video) Bill Murphy, Chairman of the Gold Anti-Trust Action Committee delivers his testimony about a whistle-blower in the gold price suppression scheme to the Commodity Futures Trading Commission on 3/25/10

-- On 6 February 2010 ABN AMRO Bank N.V. (registered with the Dutch Chamber of Commerce under number 33002587) changed its name to The Royal Bank of Scotland N.V. and on 1 April 2010 ABN AMRO Holding N.V. changed its name toRBS Holdings N.V. and all references in the attached document to "ABN AMRO Bank N.V." should be read as references to "The Royal Bank of Scotland N.V." and all references to “ABN AMRO Holding N.V.”, should be read as references to “RBS Holdings N.V.”.

These name changes are not changes to either the legal entity which issued your securities or the guarantor of them and they do not affect any of the terms and conditions of your securities. For further information on The Royal Bank of Scotland N.V. or RBS Holdings N.V., and their financial status please refer to the current Registration Document for RBS Holdings N.V. and The Royal Bank of Scotland N.V., which is available at  and to the documents on file at .

Since 6 February 2010 the name ABN AMRO Bank N.V. has been used by a separate legal entity (registered with the Dutch Chamber of Commerce under number 34334259), this entity became wholly owned by the State of the Netherlands on 1 April 2010.

Neither the new entity named ABN AMRO Bank N.V. nor the State of the Netherlands will, in any way, guarantee or otherwise support the obligations under your securities, issued by The Royal Bank of Scotland N.V. (formerly ABN AMRO Bank N.V.),registered with the Dutch Chamber of Commerce under number 33002587.

--Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act was signed into law on July 21, 2010 by President Barack Obama. The legislation set out to reshape the U.S. regulatory system in a number of areas including but not limited to consumer protection, trading restrictions, credit ratings, regulation of financial products, corporate governance and disclosure, and transparency. The full text of the Act is available at:  (Please check the Classification Tables maintained by the US House of Representatives Office of the Law Revision Counsel for updates to any of the laws.) You can find links to all Commission rulemaking and reports issued under the Dodd Frank Act at:

--On 1 July 2010 the legal merger between ABN AMRO Bank N.V. (ABN AMRO Bank) and Fortis Bank (Nederland) N.V. (Fortis Bank Nederland) was completed, creating a combined entity called ABN AMRO Bank N.V.

--In 2010, J.P. Morgan acquired full ownership of its U.K. joint venture, J.P. Morgan Cazenove, one of Britain's premier investment banks.  

fraud action against Goldman, Sachs & Co.

James Patrick (Pat) Rothstein a bond trader who held top jobs at Merrill Lynch, Bear Stearns and UBS

Neil Mccormick   head of Asia Equity derivatives at UBS

Jessica Fashano   Investment Banking Associate at Citi Group.

 David Widlak Chief Financial Officer Community Central Bank Corp.-Widlak, a licensed attorney, also served as an arbitrator for the American Arbitration Association.




--J.P. Morgan celebrates the 90th anniversary of the firm's presence in China.

-Shearman & Sterling represented Citigroup Global Markets Inc. and RBS Securities Inc. as dealer managers in connection with exchange offers of various series of notes of Prologis, L.P. (formerly AMB Property, L.P.) for certain series of outstanding notes issued by ProLogis, conducted in connection with, and subject to the consummation of, a merger of equals between ProLogis and AMB Property Corporation. The combined company is now known as Prologis, Inc. Concurrently with the exchange offers, Citigroup Global Markets Inc. and RBS Securities Inc. acted as solicitation agents on behalf of the combined company, for the solicitation of consents from the holders of the ProLogis notes to certain proposed amendments to the relevant ProLogis notes indenture. The exchange offers closed on June 8, 2011.

-- On July 5, 2011, BMO Financial Group acquired Marshall & Ilsley Corporation through its subsidiary BMO
Financial Corp. (formerly Harris Financial Corp.). At the time of the acquisition, certain bank mergers also

- Yes, the U.S. Government Ought to Own the Banks Now

Special Access in Connection with the Division of Enforcement's  [Citigroup]

Proposed Amendment to Regulation CC Regarding Availability of Funds and
Collection of Checks (Docket No. R-1409) - Comments on Check Fraud Liability


Markets (along with certain affiliates, "Citigroup")---   securities fraud action against Brian H. Stoker who was an employee of Citigroup Global Markets, Inc. (along with certain affiliates, "Citigroup")

--- The Commission brings this securities fraud action against Citigroup Global Markets (along with certain affiliates, "Citigroup")

Maurice J. Spagnoletti    Executive Vice President of Mortgage and Banking Operations at Doral Financial

Irzen Octa    found outside a Citibank branch in Jakarta and died of a brain hemorrhage on the way to hospital.

Brad Griffiths      He co-founded Griffiths McBurney & Partners in 1995, one of the most powerful independent investment banks in Canada. It is now know as GMP Capital Inc. . He left the firm in 1999. He had also been head of mergers and acquisitions at Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce; vice-president of Gordon Capital Corp.; head of capital markets at Canaccord Capital; and managing director of capital markets at McFarlane Gordon.
More recently, he served as chief financial officer and chairman of the board of directors at United Hunter Oil and Gas Corp., as well as chairman of Griffiths Energy International.

Timothy McGuigan   a senior vice president at Kansas State Bank


HSBC Case Study

HSBC Exposed U.S. Financial System to Money Laundering, Drug, Terrorist Financing Risks

-Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012

The Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act (the "JOBS Act") was enacted on April 5, 2012. The JOBS Act aims to help businesses raise funds in public capital markets by minimizing regulatory requirements. The full text of the Act is available at:

-A Goldman Sachs banker added to the firm’s scarred public profile in a withering resignation letter published in the New York Times, saying Goldman had become a “toxic and destructive” place where managing directors openly referred to their own clients as “muppets.”

---  SEC Charges J.P. Morgan and Credit Suisse With Misleading Investors in RMBS Offerings

Charles Stephen Parker   an assistant manager at a Bank of America branch in nearby Athens

Andrew Breitbart   43, author and publisher, dead  

Michael Marin

Christopher Marks  owned and operated Sweeney Canyon Vineyard since 1981 and was a partner in the Marks Theriot Walston & Co. investment firm in Los Angeles

David Taundi  Banker for Bank of America ,found dead


Enhanced Prudential Standards and Early Remediation Requirements for Foreign Banking Organizations and Foreign Non-bank Financial Companies

National Bank and Federal Savings Institution Operating Subsidiary

Meeting between Federal Banking Agency Staffs and Representatives of The Clearing House

2013-10-01 CITIFINANCIAL SERVICES, INC. was renamed

CITIGROUP INC. (1951350) acquires CITIGROUP FUNDING INC. (3367236) 2013-01-01 The acquired institution sold its assets to the acquiring institution.

CITIGROUP INC. (1951350) acquires  ASSOCIATED MADISON COMPANIES, INC. (1277881) 2013-11-01 The acquired institution sold its assets to the acquiring institution.

-New York-based Citigroup in August became the first Western bank to issue credit cards in China without co-branding from a local financial institution as the government relaxes restrictions.


Citigroup Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

-On 29 September 2013, Morgan Stanley announced a partnership with Longchamp Asset Management, a French-based asset manager that specialises in the distribution of UCITS hedge funds, and La Française AM, a multi-specialist asset manager with a 10-year track record in alternative investments.Citigroup, JPMorgan Chase and Royal Bank of Scotland are the latest global banks confirming that their foreign exchange trading is under investigation.


British banking giant Barclays, UBS, Switzerland's largest bank, and German banking giant Deutsche Bank previously made similar disclosures to investors about the foreign exchange investigations.

The U.S. Department of Justice confirmed it had "an active, ongoing investigation into possible manipulation of foreign exchange rates" by traders at several banks. Swiss authorities are also investigating. 

Makoto Shimomi (Jan) Swiss-based Japanese banker

Nico Lambrechts (Jan)   Investment analyst at Investec Asset Management

David Rossi  (Mar)  The communications director of Italian bank Monte dei Paschi di Siena (MPS)

Wang Shiqiang (April) banker at state-owned China Jianyin Investment

Mohamed Hamwi – System Analyst at Trepp, a financial data and analytics firm, SHOT

 Kenneth Bellandro, former JP Morgan

David William Waygood  had been employed by both HSBC and NatWest

Hussain Ahmad Najadi   founder of AMMB Holdings Bhd. (AMM)

Carsten Schloter  Swisscom CEO[a publicly traded company in which the Swiss government has the majority stake]

Sascha Schornstein
– Royal Bank of Scotland [RBS] in its commodity finance

Anne Doss, Head of Wells Fargo Unit , She died on Aug. 14 in her hotel room at the Sofitel    Minneapolis in Bloomington, Minnesota

Moritz Erhardt (Aug)   Interning with investment bank Merrill Lynch

Patrick Sheehan a managing director in Wells Fargo Securities public finance department

 Pierre Wauthier    chief financial officer of Zurich Insurance Group AG (ZURN)

Guy Ratovondrahona   Madagascar Central Bank

Ezdehar Husainat – former JP Morgan banker, killed  when her SUV crushed her to death

Michael Burdin  -Bank of America

Venera Minakhmetova  Former Financial Analyst at Bank of America Merrill Lynch

Susan Hewitt  former vice president of  Deutsche Bank

Benjamin Idim, CAR ACCIDENT

Joseph M. Ambrosio age 34, Financial Analyst at J.P. Morgan

Robert Wilson, a retired hedge fund founder

Jason Alan Salais age 34, IT Specialist for J.P Morgan Chase



SEC Enforcement Actions Addressing Misconduct That Led to or Arose From the Financial Crisis
Key Statistics (through September 11, 2014))

List of Federal Reserve Member Banks

Banks of England

Money Managers who own this Issuer’s Securities or Options on them City National Corp

SEC’s FY 2014 Enforcement Actions

BofA Fined $16.6M for Violating Drug-Trafficking Sanctions

 Losses House Votes To Audit The Fed... And Deregulate Wall Street

European Banks Sued for Indirect Funding of Terror Attacks

Wells Fargo, HSBC Among Banks Sued Over Subprime Securities

HSBC is paying $2 billion, or 5 weeks' worth of its profit, to avoid criminal charges in drug cartel laundering case

The Justice Department agreed to suspend criminal charges against the world's largest bank and its US subsidiary for five years if the bank agreed to pay the penalty.

Meeting Between Staff of the Federal Reserve Board, the Office of the Comptroller of theCurrency (OCC), the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC),and Citigroup Global Markets Inc. (Citigroup)

February 19, 2014

Participants: David Emmel, Kevin Littler, Dafina Stewart, Jahad Atieh (Federal Reserve
Tena Alexander, Jill Cetina, Tiffany Eng, Linda Jennings, Patrick Tierney,James Weinberger (OCC)
Kyle Hadley, Eric Schatten, Sue Dawley, Jason Fincke (FDIC)
Jim Johnson, Howard Marsh, Joseph Geraci, Patrick Brett, Peter O’Connor,Sarah Sullivan (Citigroup)

Summary: Staff of the Federal Reserve Board, OCC, and the FDIC met with representatives of Citigroup to discuss the proposed Liquidity Coverage Ratio rule, which would implement the
Basel III liquidity standards in the United States. Meeting participants discussed the proposed rule’s definition of level 2A highly liquid assets and the consequences of omitting municipalsecurities from the definition of highly liquid assets.

-Meeting Between Staff of the Federal Reserve Board, the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC), the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), and Citigroup

May 7, 2014

Participants: David Emmel, Kevin Littler, Adam Trost, April Snyder, Dafina Stewart, and Jahad Atieh (Federal Reserve Board)

Kerrie Corn, Kevin Walsh, and Patrick Tierney, (OCC)
Kyle Hadley, Suzanne Clair, and Sue Dawley (FDIC)
Eric Aboaf and Nora Slatkin (Citigroup)

Summary: Staff of the Federal Reserve Board, the OCC, and the FDIC met with representatives of Citigroup to discuss the proposed Liquidity Coverage Ratio rule, which would implement the Basel III liquidity standards in the United States. Meeting participants discussed the potential consequences of the proposed peak net contractual outflow day.

Citigroup Sued in Abu Dhabi  By Investor Over Fund

-Friends Commit Suicide  In The Last Four Years, Associates Say Russian Mafia Orchestrated Their Deaths

Elizabeth Warren's Speech (below)

David Bird 55, long-time reporter for the Wall Street Journal working at the Dow Jones news room,   went for a walk on Saturday, January 11, 2014 near his New Jersey home and disappeared without a trace. Mr. Bird was a reporter of the oil and commodity markets which happened to be under investigation by the U.S. Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations for price manipulation.

Tim Dickenson (Jan 26), a U.K.-based communications director at Swiss Re AG

Karl Slym (Jan 27) 51, managing director of India's Tata Motors Ltd   

James Stuart Jr (Feb 19)70, Former National Bank of Commerce CEO was found dead in Scottsdale, Ariz

John Ruiz  (Feb)– Morgan Stanley Municipal Debt Analyst, died suddenly

Autumn Radtke  (Feb), 28, CEO of a Bitcoin exchange firm
First Meta

William Broeksmit   (Feb), 58, former senior manager for Deutsche Bank. On January 26, former Deutsche Bank executive Broeksmit was found dead at his South Kensington home after police responded to reports of a man found hanging at a house. According to reports, Broeksmit had “close ties to co-chief executive Anshu Jain.” It is important to note that Deutsche Bank is under investigation for reportedly hiding $12 billion in losses during the financial crisis and for potentially rigging the foreign exchange markets. The allegations are similar to the claims the institution settled in 2013 over involvement in rigging the Libor interest rates.

Richard Talley (Feb), 57, was the founder and CEO of American Title (real estate titles) American Title Services in Centennial, Colorado,

Ryan Henry Crane  (Feb)37,J P Morgan 

last name Li   Li Junjie, (Feb)33,JP Morgan, Hong Kong

Gabriel Magee  (Jan), 39, age JP Morgan employee Gabriel Magee, senior manager at JP Morgan’s European headquarters, jumped 500ft from the top of the bank’s headquarters in central London on January 27, landing on an adjacent 9 story roof. Gabriel Magee, a Vice President at JPMorgan in London, plunged to his death from the roof of the 33-story European headquarters of JPMorgan in Canary Wharf. Magee was involved in “Technical architecture oversight for planning, development, and operation of systems for fixed income securities and interest rate derivatives” based on his online Linkedin profile.
It’s important to note that JPMorgan, like Deutsche Bank, is under investigation for its potential

Mike Dueker  (Jan), 50, who had worked for Russell Investments. Mike Dueker, the chief economist at Russell Investments, fell down a 50 foot embankment in what police described as a suicide. Dueker was reported missing on January 29 by friends.

Edmund (Eddie) Reilly(Feb), 47, Midtown’s Vertical Group, investment banker,  New York

David Taundi   Bank of America

Mohamed Hamwi (March)– System Analyst at Trepp, a financial data and analytics firm

Joseph A. Giampapa (March) – 55, corporate bankruptcy lawyer, JP Morgan Chase

Jurgen Frick (April)48, the chief executive of the Liechtenstein private bank Bank Frick, CEO Bank Frick & Co AG,

Li Jianhua  (April)49, Non-bank Financial Institutions Supervision Department of the regulator

Benedict Philippens (April), 37,Director/Manager Bank Ans-Saint-Nicolas,BNP Parisbas Fortis Bank, Ans, België murdered alongside his wife and a 9 year old nephew

Tanji Dewberry (April)– WL Ross investment firm in New York

Jan Peter Schmittmann
  (April)  57, ABN Amro, former CEO of Deutsche Bank AG risk executive

Andrew Jarzyk   (April) – Assistant Vice President, Commercial Banking at PNC Financial Services Group

Mahafarid Amir Khosravi a/k/a also known as Amir Mansour Aria , Iran billionaire, executed over $2.6 billion scam

Phubadee Marasa    Diamond Bank

Amir Kess (April) Markstone Capital Partners Group LLC co-manager

Nigel Sharvin (May)Senior Relationship Manager Ulster Bank manage portfolio of distressed businesses

Thomas J. Schenkman  (May 7) 42,Managing Director Global Infrastructure JP Morgan   

 Naseem Mubeen  Assistant Vice President of Zarai Taraqiati Bank Limited (ZTBL)

Daniel Leaf   senior manager at the Bank of Scotland before moving to investment firm Saracen Fund Managers (SFM)

Richard Rockefeller, 66, Banker John D. Rockefeller

Richard P. Gravino  (June 24)49, IT Specialist JP Morgan, Application Team Lead 

Julian Knott   (July 10)JPMorgan Chase employee       

S Krishnamoorthy     Barclays bank in Chennai

Therese Brouwer , 50, Managing Director ING, Nederland

Tod Robert Edwards  51, Vice President M & T Bank

Melissa Millan   , 54, Senior Vice President Mass Mutual,

Thieu Leenen, 64, Relatiemanager ABN/AMRO, Eindhoven, Nederland

Carlos Six, 61, Hoofd Belastingdienst en lid CREDAF, België

Jan Winkelhuijzen, 75, Commissaris en Fiscalist (voormalig Deloitte), Nederland.

Lewis Katz 76, Amerika, co-owner of The Inquirer, Philadelphia Daily News, and

Nicholas Valtz 39, Managing Director Goldman Sachs, New York

Geert Tack 52, Private Banker ING, Haaltert, België


Mark Schultz  (Sept)  A small airplane crashed soon after takeoff in western Minnesota, killing a bank executive and his brother, a longtime Medtronic employee

Tod R. Edwards  (Sept)  the Group Vice President for M&T Bank, Lancaster and Harrisburg Offices

Christophe de Margerie    (Oct)    Total’s CEO        

Calogero "Charlie" Gambino  (Oct 20)  A senior Deutsche Bank regulatory lawyer

 Scott Jeffrey Therriault   BTRE, Executive Director at JP Morgan Chase in 2002, Merrill Lynch, etc.

Jeffrey Schwartz, former ProLogis CEO chairman of the Executive Committee and co-Founder Global Logistic Properties dies,    

Jeffrey H. Schwartz
Chairman of the Executive Committee
Executive Director
Appointed September 24, 2010
Jeffrey H. Schwartz, 54, is Co-Founder of Global Logistic
Properties Holdings Limited, Chairman of the Executive
Committee, Executive Director and GLP Group’s Deputy
Chairman of the Board. Mr. Schwartz was last reelected
as a Director at GLP’s Annual General Meeting
on 20 July 2011. He also serves as a member of GLP’s
Investment Committee. Mr. Schwartz joined ProLogis,
a NYSE-listed Fortune 500 company, in 1994, and held
various executive roles, rising to Chief Executive Officer
in 2005 as well as Chairman of the Board in 2007.
While at ProLogis, Mr. Schwartz spearheaded ProLogis’
entry into the European markets in 1997, and also
established ProLogis’ Asia platform in 2002, initially in
Japan and eventually progressing to China and Korea.
Mr. Schwartz serves on the advisory boards of the
Guanghua School of Management, Peking University
and Fundacao Dom Cabral, Brazil. Mr. Schwartz is a
member of the Board of Trustees of Emory University and
a member of the Real Estate Roundtable, a non-profit

public policy organization. He also sits on the board of
Las Vegas Sands Corp., Sands China Limited and GLP
Japan Advisors Inc., the Asset Manager for GLP J-REIT.
Mr. Schwartz graduated from Harvard Business School
in 1985 with a Master of Business Administration.
Mr. Schwartz graduated from Emory University in 1981
with a Bachelor of Business Administration.

Jeffrey Schwart is in the middle (picture below)


Thierry Leyne    a French-Israeli banker and partner of Dominique Strauss-Kahn, the disgraced former chief of the International Monetary Fund, was found dead

Shawn D. Miller  (Nov), 42, Managing Director Citigroup, New York,

Johnny Elichaoff

Huibert Boumeester  (Dec 8) 49,A DUTCH financier who went missing after leaving his job at troubled banking group ABN Amro has been found dead with gunshot wounds.

Staff at Artemis Assets Management, where the missing businessman was appointed to the board following a merger with ABN Amro, said he resigned in March this year citing "personal reasons".

Robert Matthews   Vice Chairman of Commercial Banking and a member of the Citizens Financial Group board of directors




The Bureau and the CPD bring this action against Wells Fargo Bank, N.A. (“Wells Fargo”),
JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A. (“Chase”), Elaine Oliphant Cohen, and Todd Cohen (collectively,

 BULLETIN: Advanced Sales: New IRS policy for Rollovers from One Traditional IRA to Another Traditional IRA     NEW

OCC Enforcement Actions and Terminations

Omar Meza  AIG NEW executive 

Michael Flanagan  Head of Foreign Exchange Institutional Sales at National Australia Bank.

Chris van Eeghen  head of syndicate and corporate finance markets at ABN Amro Group NV

AGREEMENT AND PLAN OF MERGER, dated as of May 30, 2021 (this “Agreement”), by and between Old National Bancorp, an Indiana corporation (“Old National”), and First Midwest Bancorp, Inc., a Delaware corporation (“First Midwest”). ... 3.7 Broker’s Fees. With the exception of the engagement of J.P. Morgan Securities LLC (“J.P. Morgan”), neither First Midwest nor any First Midwest Subsidiary nor any of their respective officers or directors has employed any broker, finder or financial advisor or incurred any liability for any broker’s fees, commissions or finder’s fees in connection with the Merger or related transactions contemplated by this Agreement. First Midwest has disclosed to Old National as of the date hereof the aggregate fees provided for in connection with the engagement by First Midwest of J.P. Morgan related to the Merger and the other transactions contemplated hereby.


More than one way to control a Banker :  


Igor Artamonov – West Siberian Bank of Sberbank, Daughter found dead

Nick Bagnall – Director at Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi, son accidentally killed himself while trying to re-enact a Tudor hanging

Kevin Bespolka – Citi Capital Advisors, Dresdner Bank, Merrill Lynch and Morgan Stanley, Seriously injured and son dead

Robin Clark – RP Martin -Wolf of Shenfield City banker shot, survived

Fang Fang – JP Morgan, China, disgraced

Chris Latham – Bank of America, on trial, Murder for Hire

Hector Sants, Barclays – resigned due to stress and exhaustion, after being told he risked more serious consequences to his health if he continued to work – a remarkable turnaround as the Church reportedly approached him two months later and was told he had made a full recovery.

Robert Wheeler, 49, a Deutsche Bank financial advisor, disgraced

Hector Sants, Barclays – resigned due to stress and exhaustion, after being told he risked more serious consequences to his health if he continued to work – a remarkable turnaround as the Church reportedly approached him two months later and was told he had made a full recovery.


Citi In Florida

Travelers Group In Florida

Citicorp and Travelers Plan to Merge






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