Shown Here:
Reported to Senate with amendment(s) (12/08/2005)
Weather Modification Research and Development Policy Authorization Act of 2005 - (Sec. 4) Directs the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy to establish a Weather Modification Subcommittee to coordinate a national research program on weather modification. Requires the Subcommittee to include representatives from: (1) the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA); (2) the National Science Foundation (NSF); and (3) the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Provides for a representative from NOAA and a representative from NSF to serve together as co-chairs of such Subcommittee.

Requires the Director to develop and submit a plan for coordinated federal activities under the program, which shall: (1) for a ten-year period, establish the goals and priorities for federal research that most effectively advances scientific understanding of weather modification; (2) describe specific activities required to achieve such goals and priorities, including funding of competitive research grants, training and support for scientists, and participation in international research efforts; (3) identify and address, as appropriate, relevant programs and activities of the federal agencies and departments that would contribute to the program; (4) consider and use, as appropriate, reports and studies conducted by federal agencies and departments, and other expert scientific bodies, including the National Research Council report on Critical Issues in Weather Modification Research; (5) make recommendations for the coordination of program activities with weather modification activities of other national and international organizations; (6) incorporate recommendations from the Weather Modification Research Advisory Board; and (7) estimate federal funding for research activities to be conducted under the program.

Specifies activities related to weather modification that may be included under the program, including: (1) interdisciplinary research and coordination of research and activities to improve understanding of processes relating to weather modification, including cloud modeling, cloud seeding, improving forecast and decision-making technologies, related severe weather research, and potential adverse affects of weather modification; (2) development, through partnerships among federal agencies, states, and academic institutions, of new technologies and approaches for weather modification; and (3) scholarships and educational opportunities that encourage an interdisciplinary approach to weather modification.

Requires the Director to prepare and submit to the President and Congress annual reports on the activities conducted pursuant to this Act respecting the Weather Modification Subcommittee, including: (1) a summary of the achievements of federal weather modification research; (2) an analysis of the progress made toward achieving the goals and objectives of the plan; (3) a copy or summary of the plan and any changes made to it; (4) a summary of agency budgets for weather modification activities; (5) any recommendations regarding additional action or legislation that may be required to assist in achieving the purposes of this Act; (6) a description of the relationship between research conducted on weather modification and research conducted pursuant to the Global Change Research Act of 1990, as well as research on weather forecasting and prediction; and (7) a description of any potential adverse consequences on life, property, or water resource availability from weather modification efforts, and any suggested means of mitigating or reducing such consequences if such efforts are undertaken.

(Sec. 5) Establishes in the Office of Science and Technology Policy the Weather Modification Research Advisory Board to: (1) make recommendations to the Weather Modification Subcommittee on matters related to weather modification; and (2) advise such Subcommittee on the research and development, studies, and investigations with respect to potential uses of technologies and observation systems for weather modification research and assessments and evaluations of the efficacy of weather modification, both purposeful, (including cloud-seeding operations) and inadvertent (including downwind effects and anthropogenic effects).

(Sec. 6) Instructs U.S. departments and agencies and any other public or private agencies and institutions that receive research funds from the United States related to weather modification to give full support and cooperation to the Weather Modification Subcommittee. https://www.congress.gov/bill/109th-congress/senate-bill/517

Shown Here:
Reported to Senate (12/08/2005)
[Congressional Bills 109th Congress]
[From the U.S. Government Printing Office]
[S. 517 Reported in Senate (RS)]


Calendar No. 319
109th CONGRESS
1st Session
S. 517

[Report No. 109-202]

To establish the Weather Modification Operations and Research Board,
and for other purposes.


_______________________________________________________________________


IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES

March 3, 2005

Mrs. Hutchison introduced the following bill; which was read twice and
referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation

December 8, 2005

Reported under authority of the order of the Senate of November 18,
2005, by Mr. Stevens, with an amendment and an amendment to the title
[Strike all after the enacting clause and insert the part printed in
italic]

_______________________________________________________________________

A BILL



To establish the Weather Modification Operations and Research Board,
and for other purposes.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the
United States of America in Congress assembled,

<DELETED>SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.</DELETED>

<DELETED> This Act may be cited as the ``Weather Modification
Research and Technology Transfer Authorization Act of 2005''.</DELETED>

<DELETED>SEC. 2. PURPOSE.</DELETED>

<DELETED> It is the purpose of this Act to develop and implement a
comprehensive and coordinated national weather modification policy and
a national cooperative Federal and State program of weather
modification research and development.</DELETED>

<DELETED>SEC. 3. DEFINITIONS.</DELETED>

<DELETED> In this Act:</DELETED>
<DELETED> (1) Board.--The term ``Board'' means the Weather
Modification Advisory and Research Board.</DELETED>
<DELETED> (2) Executive director.--The term ``Executive
Director'' means the Executive Director of the Weather
Modification Advisory and Research Board.</DELETED>
<DELETED> (3) Research and development.--The term ``research
and development'' means theoretical analysis, exploration,
experimentation, and the extension of investigative findings
and theories of scientific or technical nature into practical
application for experimental and demonstration purposes,
including the experimental production and testing of models,
devices, equipment, materials, and processes.</DELETED>
<DELETED> (4) Weather modification.--The term ``weather
modification'' means changing or controlling, or attempting to
change or control, by artificial methods the natural
development of atmospheric cloud forms or precipitation forms
which occur in the troposphere.</DELETED>

<DELETED>SEC. 4. WEATHER MODIFICATION ADVISORY AND RESEARCH BOARD
ESTABLISHED.</DELETED>

<DELETED> (a) In General.--There is established in the Department of
Commerce the Weather Modification Advisory and Research
Board.</DELETED>
<DELETED> (b) Membership.--</DELETED>
<DELETED> (1) In general.--The Board shall consist of 11
members appointed by the Secretary of Commerce, of whom--
</DELETED>
<DELETED> (A) at least 1 shall be a representative
of the American Meteorological Society;</DELETED>
<DELETED> (B) at least 1 shall be a representative
of the American Society of Civil Engineers;</DELETED>
<DELETED> (C) at least 1 shall be a representative
of the National Academy of Sciences;</DELETED>
<DELETED> (D) at least 1 shall be a representative
of the National Center for Atmospheric Research of the
National Science Foundation;</DELETED>
<DELETED> (E) at least 2 shall be representatives of
the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of
the Department of Commerce;</DELETED>
<DELETED> (F) at least 1 shall be a representative
of institutions of higher education or research
institutes; and</DELETED>
<DELETED> (G) at least 1 shall be a representative
of a State that is currently supporting operational
weather modification projects.</DELETED>
<DELETED> (2) Tenure.--A member of the Board serves at the
pleasure of the Secretary of Commerce.</DELETED>
<DELETED> (3) Vacancies.--Any vacancy on the Board shall be
filled in the same manner as the original
appointment.</DELETED>
<DELETED> (b) Advisory Committees.--The Board may establish advisory
committees to advise the Board and to make recommendations to the Board
concerning legislation, policies, administration, research, and other
matters.</DELETED>
<DELETED> (c) Initial Meeting.--Not later than 30 days after the
date on which all members of the Board have been appointed, the Board
shall hold its first meeting.</DELETED>
<DELETED> (d) Meetings.--The Board shall meet at the call of the
Chair.</DELETED>
<DELETED> (e) Quorum.--A majority of the members of the Board shall
constitute a quorum, but a lesser number of members may hold
hearings.</DELETED>
<DELETED> (f) Chair and Vice Chair.--The Board shall select a Chair
and Vice Chair from among its members.</DELETED>

<DELETED>SEC. 5. DUTIES OF THE BOARD.</DELETED>

<DELETED> (a) Promotion of Research and Development.--In order to
assist in expanding the theoretical and practical knowledge of weather
modification, the Board shall promote and fund research and
development, studies, and investigations with respect to--</DELETED>
<DELETED> (1) improved forecast and decision-making
technologies for weather modification operations, including
tailored computer workstations and software and new observation
systems with remote sensors; and</DELETED>
<DELETED> (2) assessments and evaluations of the efficacy of
weather modification, both purposeful (including cloud-seeding
operations) and inadvertent (including downwind effects and
anthropogenic effects).</DELETED>
<DELETED> (b) Financial Assistance.--Unless the use of the money is
restricted or subject to any limitations provided by law, the Board
shall use amounts in the Weather Modification Research and Development
Fund--</DELETED>
<DELETED> (1) to pay its expenses in the administration of
this Act, and</DELETED>
<DELETED> (2) to provide for research and development with
respect to weather modifications by grants to, or contracts or
cooperative arrangements, with public or private
agencies.</DELETED>
<DELETED> (c) Report.--The Board shall submit to the Secretary
biennially a report on its findings and research results.</DELETED>

<DELETED>SEC. 6. POWERS OF THE BOARD.</DELETED>

<DELETED> (a) Studies, Investigations, and Hearings.--The Board may
make any studies or investigations, obtain any information, and hold
any hearings necessary or proper to administer or enforce this Act or
any rules or orders issued under this Act.</DELETED>
<DELETED> (b) Personnel.--The Board may employ, as provided for in
appropriations Acts, an Executive Director and other support staff
necessary to perform duties and functions under this Act.</DELETED>
<DELETED> (c) Cooperation With Other Agencies.--The Board may
cooperate with public or private agencies to promote the purposes of
this Act.</DELETED>
<DELETED> (d) Cooperative Agreements.--The Board may enter into
cooperative agreements with the head of any department or agency of the
United States, an appropriate official of any State or political
subdivision of a State, or an appropriate official of any private or
public agency or organization for conducting weather modification
activities or cloud-seeding operations.</DELETED>
<DELETED> (e) Conduct and Contracts for Research and Development.--
The Executive Director, with the approval of the Board, may conduct and
may contract for research and development activities relating to the
purposes of this section.</DELETED>

<DELETED>SEC. 7. COOPERATION WITH THE WEATHER MODIFICATION OPERATIONS
AND RESEARCH BOARD.</DELETED>

<DELETED> The heads of the departments and agencies of the United
States and the heads of any other public or private agencies and
institutions that receive research funds from the United States shall,
to the extent possible, give full support and cooperation to the Board
and to initiate independent research and development programs that
address weather modifications.</DELETED>

<DELETED>SEC. 8. FUNDING.</DELETED>

<DELETED> (a) In General.--There is established within the Treasury
of the United States the Weather Modification Research and Development
Fund, which shall consist of amounts appropriated pursuant to
subsection (b) or received by the Board under subsection (c).</DELETED>
<DELETED> (b) Authorization of Appropriations.--There is authorized
to be appropriated to the Board for the purposes of carrying out the
provisions of this Act $10,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2005
through 2014. Any sums appropriated under this subsection shall remain
available, without fiscal year limitation, until expended.</DELETED>
<DELETED> (c) Gifts.--The Board may accept, use, and dispose of
gifts or donations of services or property.</DELETED>

<DELETED>SEC. 9. EFFECTIVE DATE.</DELETED>

<DELETED> This Act shall take effect on October 1, 2005.</DELETED>

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

This Act may be cited as the ``Weather Modification Research and
Development Policy Authorization Act of 2005''.

SEC. 2. PURPOSE.

It is the purpose of this Act to develop and implement a
comprehensive and coordinated national weather modification research
policy and a national cooperative Federal and State program of weather
modification research and development.

SEC. 3. DEFINITIONS.

In this Act:
(1) Board.--The term ``Board'' means the Weather
Modification Research Advisory Board.
(2) Research and development.--The term ``research and
development'' means theoretical analysis, exploration,
experimentation, and the extension of investigative findings
and theories of a scientific or technical nature into practical
application for experimental and demonstration purposes,
including the experimental production and testing of models,
devices, equipment, materials, and processes.
(3) Weather modification.--The term ``weather
modification'' means the purposeful or inadvertent changing or
controlling, or attempting to change or control, by artificial
methods, the natural development of atmospheric cloud forms or
precipitation forms which occur in the troposphere.

SEC. 4. WEATHER MODIFICATION SUBCOMMITTEE.

(a) Establishment.--The Director of the Office of Science and
Technology Policy shall establish a Weather Modification Subcommittee
to coordinate a national research program on weather modification.
(b) Membership.--The Weather Modification Subcommittee shall
include representatives from appropriate Federal agencies, including
the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the National
Science Foundation, and the National Aeronautics and Space
Administration.
(c) Chairs of the Weather Modification Subcommittee.--A
representative from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
and a representative from the National Science Foundation shall serve
together as co-chairs of the Weather Modification Subcommittee.
(d) Implementation Plan.--Not later than 180 days after the date of
enactment of this Act, the Director of the Office of Science and
Technology Policy shall develop and submit to Congress a plan for
coordinated Federal activities under the national research program
under subsection (a) and the plan shall--
(1) for a 10-year period beginning in the year it is
submitted, establish the goals and priorities for Federal
research that most effectively advances scientific
understanding of weather modification;
(2) describe specific activities required to achieve such
goals and priorities, including funding of competitive research
grants, training and support for scientists, and participation
in international research efforts;
(3) identify and address, as appropriate, relevant programs
and activities of the Federal agencies and departments that
would contribute to the program;
(4) consider and use, as appropriate, reports and studies
conducted by Federal agencies and departments, and other expert
scientific bodies, including the National Research Council
report on Critical Issues in Weather Modification Research;
(5) make recommendations for the coordination of program
activities with weather modification activities of other
national and international organizations;
(6) incorporate recommendations from the Weather
Modification Research Advisory Board; and
(7) estimate Federal funding for research activities to be
conducted under the program described in subsection (a).
(e) Program Scope.--The national research program under subsection
(a) may include the following activities related to weather
modification:
(1) Interdisciplinary research and coordination of research
and activities to improve understanding of processes relating
to weather modification, including--
(A) cloud modeling;
(B) cloud seeding;
(C) improving forecast and decision-making
technologies;
(D) related severe weather research; and
(E) potential adverse affects of weather
modification.
(2) Coordination with relevant organizations that engage in
weather modification research.
(3) Development through partnerships among Federal
agencies, States, and academic institutions of new technologies
and approaches for weather modification.
(4) Scholarships and educational opportunities that
encourage an interdisciplinary approach to weather
modification.
(f) Annual Report on Activities.--Beginning with the first year
occurring more than 24 months after the date of enactment of this Act,
the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy shall
prepare and submit to the President and Congress not later than January
31st of each year an annual report on the activities conducted pursuant
to this section during the preceding fiscal year, including--
(1) a summary of the achievements of Federal weather
modification research, including Federally supported external
research, during the preceding fiscal year;
(2) an analysis of the progress made toward achieving the
goals and objectives of the plan developed under subsection
(d), including the identification of trends;
(3) a copy or summary of the plan and any changes made to
the plan;
(4) a summary of agency budgets for weather modification
activities for the preceding fiscal year;
(5) any recommendations regarding additional action or
legislation that may be required to assist in achieving the
purposes of this Act;
(6) a description of the relationship between research
conducted on weather modification and research conducted
pursuant to the Global Change Research Act of 1990 (15 U.S.C.
2921 et seq.), as well as research on weather forecasting and
prediction; and
(7) a description of any potential adverse consequences on
life, property, or water resource availability from weather
modification efforts, and any suggested means of mitigating or
reducing such consequences if such efforts are undertaken.

SEC. 5. WEATHER MODIFICATION RESEARCH ADVISORY BOARD ESTABLISHED.

(a) Establishment.--There is established in the Office of Science
and Technology Policy the Weather Modification Research Advisory Board
to make recommendations to the Weather Modification Subcommittee on
matters related to weather modification.
(b) Membership.--
(1) Composition.--The Board shall consist of 9 members,
each with a field of expertise in atmospheric science or civil
engineering relevant to weather modification, and appointed by
the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy as
follows:
(A) At least 1 member shall be a representative of
the American Meteorological Society.
(B) At least 1 member shall be a representative of
the American Society of Civil Engineers.
(C) At least 1 member shall be a representative of
the National Academy of Sciences.
(D) At least 1 member shall be a representative of
institutions of higher education or research institutes
with experience in the field.
(E) At least 1 member shall be a representative of
a State organization that is currently supporting
operational weather modification projects.
(2) Tenure.--A member of the Board shall serve at the
pleasure of the Director of the Office of Science and
Technology Policy.
(3) Vacancies.--Any vacancy on the Board shall be filled in
the same manner as the original appointment.
(c) Initial Meeting.--Not later than 30 days after the date on
which all members of the Board have been appointed, the Board shall
hold its first meeting.
(d) Meetings.--The Board shall meet at the call of the Chair.
(e) Quorum.--A majority of the members of the Board shall
constitute a quorum, but a lesser number of members may hold hearings.
(f) Chair and Vice Chair.--The Board shall select a Chair and Vice
Chair from among its members.
(g) Duties of the Board.--The duties of the Board shall include the
following:
(1) Advising the Weather Modification Subcommittee on
recommendations concerning legislation, policies,
administration, research, and other matters related to weather
modification.
(2) In order to assist in expanding the theoretical and
practical knowledge of weather modification, the Board shall
advise the Weather Modification Subcommittee on the research
and development, studies, and investigations with respect to--
(A) potential uses of technologies and observation
systems for weather modification research; and
(B) assessments and evaluations of the efficacy of
weather modification, both purposeful, including cloud-
seeding operations, and inadvertent, including downwind
effects and anthropogenic effects.
(h) Powers of the Board.--The Board may conduct public meetings,
gather information, and issue reports.

SEC. 6. COOPERATION WITH THE WEATHER MODIFICATION SUBCOMMITTEE.

The heads of the departments and agencies of the United States and
the heads of any other public or private agencies and institutions that
receive research funds from the United States related to weather
modification shall, to the extent possible, give full support and
cooperation to the Weather Modification Subcommittee.

Amend the title so as to read: ``To establish a coordinated
national weather modification research and development program,
and for other purposes''.




Calendar No. 319

109th CONGRESS

1st Session

S. 517

[Report No. 109-202]

_______________________________________________________________________

A BILL

To establish the Weather Modification Operations and Research Board,
and for other purposes.

_______________________________________________________________________

December 8, 2005

Reported with an amendment and an amendment to the titleD23/
https://www.congress.gov/bill/109th-congress/senate-bill/517/text



https://www.congress.gov/109/crpt/srpt202/CRPT-109srpt202.pdf




109th Congress
1st Session SENATE Report
109-202
_______________________________________________________________________
Calendar No. 319

WEATHER MODIFICATION RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER AUTHORIZATION ACT
OF 2005

__________

R E P O R T

OF THE

COMMITTEE ON COMMERCE, SCIENCE, AND TRANSPORTATION

on

S. 517





DATE deg.December 8, 2005.--Ordered to be printed

Filed under authority of the order of the Senate of November 18, 2005
SENATE COMMITTEE ON COMMERCE, SCIENCE, AND TRANSPORTATION
one hundred ninth congress
second session

TED STEVENS, Alaska, Chairman
DANIEL K. INOUYE, Hawaii, Co-Chairman
JOHN McCAIN, Arizona JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER IV, West
CONRAD BURNS, Montana Virginia
TRENT LOTT, Mississippi JOHN F. KERRY, Massachusetts
KAY BAILEY HUTCHISON, Texas BYRON L. DORGAN, North Dakota
OLYMPIA J. SNOWE, Maine BARBARA BOXER, California
GORDON H. SMITH, Oregon BILL NELSON, Florida
JOHN ENSIGN, Nevada MARIA CANTWELL, Washington
GEORGE ALLEN, Virginia FRANK LAUTENBERG, New Jersey
JOHN E. SUNUNU, New Hampshire E. BENJAMIN NELSON, Nebraska
JIM DeMINT, South Carolina MARK PRYOR, Arkansas
DAVID VITTER, Louisiana
Lisa Sutherland, Staff Director
Christine Drager Kurth, Deputy Staff Director
David Russell, Chief Counsel
Margaret Cummisky, Democratic Staff Director and Chief Counsel
Samuel Whitehorn, Democratic Deputy Staff Director and General Counsel
Calendar No. 319
109th Congress Report
SENATE
1st Session 109-202

======================================================================




WEATHER MODIFICATION RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER AUTHORIZATION ACT
OF 2005

_______


December 8, 2005.--Ordered to be printed

Filed under authority of the order of the Senate of November 18, 2005

_______


Mr. Stevens, from the Committee on Commerce, Science, and
Transportation, submitted the following

R E P O R T

[To accompany S. 517]

The Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, to
which was referred the bill (S. 517) to establish the Weather
Modification Operations and Research Board, and for other
purposes, having considered the same, reports favorably thereon
with an amendment (in the nature of a substitute) and
recommends that the bill (as amended) do pass.

Purpose of the Bill

The purpose of S. 517, as set forth in section 2 of the bill
is, ``to develop and implement a comprehensive and coordinated
national weather modification research policy and a national
cooperative Federal and State program of weather modification
research and development.''

Background and Needs

Weather modification refers to the intentional modification
of atmospheric processes by human activities. For a number of
years the Federal government supported research for weather
modification. Federal support for weather modification research
and development peaked in the mid-1970s and has since declined
due in part to both a lack of a statistical confirmation of
hail suppression and rain enhancement seeding experiments and a
shift from federally funded in-house weather modification
research and development to cooperative Federal/State weather
modification research. Currently, there is no Federal funding
for weather modification activities.

Summary of Provisions

The bill would create a subcommittee in the Office of Science
and Technology Policy (OSTP) to coordinate a national weather
modification research program. The subcommittee would be co-
chaired by representatives from the National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the National Science
Foundation (NSF), and would have representation from the
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and other
appropriate Federal agencies.
The subcommittee would be required to submit a plan for
weather modification research that describes goals and
activities, evaluates existing programs, makes suggestions on
coordination with existing programs, and provides an estimation
of Federal funding for weather modification research. The
program would include activities to improve the understanding
of processes related to weather modification and the potential
negative impacts of weather modification.
The bill also would establish an advisory board in OSTP to
make recommendations to the subcommittee. This advisory board
would be composed of outside experts including scientists,
engineers and State officials involved in weather modification
operations. The advisory board would examine potential uses for
weather modification research and evaluate the efficacy of
weather modification research.

Legislative History

The Weather Modification Research and Technology Transfer
Authorization Act of 2005 (S. 517) was introduced by Senator
Hutchison on March 3, 2005 and referred to the Senate Committee
on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. The Subcommittee on
Disaster Prevention and Prediction and the Subcommittee on
Science and Space held a joint hearing on S. 517 on November
10, 2005. On November 17, 2005, the Committee considered the
bill in an open Executive Session. Senator Hutchison offered an
amendment in the nature of a substitute. The Committee, without
objection, adopted the substitute and ordered S. 517 be
reported with the amendment.

Estimated Costs

In accordance with paragraph 11(a) of rule XXVI of the
Standing Rules of the Senate and section 403 of the
Congressional Budget Act of 1974, the Committee provides the
following cost estimate, prepared by the Congressional Budget
Office:

December 1, 2005.
Hon. Ted Stevens,
Chairman, Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, U.S.
Senate, Washington, DC.
Dear Mr. Chairman: The Congressional Budget Office has
prepared the enclosed cost estimate for S. 517, the Weather
Modification Research and Development Policy Act of 2005.
If you wish further details on this estimate, we will be
pleased to provide them. The CBO staff contact is Matthew
Pickford.
Sincerely,
Douglas Holtz-Eakin.
Enclosure.

S. 517--Weather Modification Research and Development Policy Act of
2005

S. 517 would establish within the Office of Science and
Technology Policy (OSTP) a new Weather Modification
Subcommittee and a Weather Modification Research Advisory
Board. Weather modification is the general term that refers to
any human attempt to alter the weather. The subcommittee would
consist of representatives from the National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration, the National Science Foundation,
and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and would
be responsible for coordinating a national research program on
weather modification. The advisory board would consist of nine
members with weather expertise from outside the federal
government, appointed by the Director of OSTP to advise the
work of the subcommittee.
Within 180 days of enactment, the legislation would require
the Weather Modification Subcommittee to report to the Congress
goals and priorities for federal weather modification research
over the next 10 years. In addition, the subcommittee would
annually report on weather modification research achievements,
progress, budgets, and recommendations. (This legislation would
not specifically authorize any such research.) The advisory
board would work with the subcommittee to make recommendations
on weather modification issues.
Based on information from OSTP, CBO expects that the new
subcommittee and advisory board would require a small increase
in staff and overall administrative expenses to coordinate a
national research program on weather modification. We estimate
that implementing S. 517 would cost about $1 million annually,
assuming appropriation of the necessary amounts. Enacting the
legislation would not affect direct spending or revenues.
S. 517 contains no intergovernmental or private-sector
mandates as defined in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act;. any
costs to state, local, or tribal governments would result from
complying with conditions of federal assistance.
The CBO staff contact for this estimate is Matthew
Pickford. This estimate was approved by Peter H. Fontaine,
Deputy Assistant Director for Budget Analysis.

Regulatory Impact Statement

In accordance with paragraph 11(b) of rule XXVI of the
Standing Rules of the Senate, the Committee provides the
following evaluation of the regulatory impact of the
legislation, as reported:

NUMBER OF PERSONS COVERED

The bill would require OSTP to develop a national weather
modification policy. The bill would not authorize any new
regulations and, therefore, would not subject any individuals
or businesses to new regulations.

ECONOMIC IMPACT

S. 517 would not have an adverse economic impact on the
nation's economy. The Act would not authorize any new spending.

PRIVACY

The reported bill would have little, if any, impact on the
personal privacy of U.S. citizens.

PAPERWORK

The reported bill would not increase paperwork requirements
significantly for individuals and businesses. Section 4 of the
Act would require OSTP to submit a 10-year plan to Congress and
an annual report to the President and Congress.

Section-by-Section Analysis


Section 1. Short title

Section 1 would establish the short title of the bill as the
``Weather Modification Research and Development Policy
Authorization Act of 2005.''

Section 2. Purpose

Section 2 would establish the purpose of the bill to develop
a comprehensive national weather modification research policy.

Section 3. Definitions

Section 3 would define various terms in the act, including
``Board'', ``Research and Development'', and ``Weather
Modification.''

Section 4. Weather Modification Subcommittee

Section 4 would create a subcommittee in OSTP to coordinate a
national weather modification research program. The
subcommittee would be co-chaired by NOAA and NSF, and would
have representation from NASA and other appropriate Federal
agencies.
The section would require the Subcommittee to submit a plan
for weather modification research that would describe goals and
activities, evaluate existing programs, make suggestions on
coordination with existing programs, and provide an estimation
of Federal funding for weather modification research.
The section states that the program may include activities to
improve the understanding of processes related to weather
modification including cloud seeding, cloud modeling, improved
forecast technologies, as well as the potential negative
impacts of weather modification.
Finally the section would require the Board to submit an
annual report on the activities conducted pursuant to this
section.

Section 5. Weather modification research advisory board established

Section 5 would establish an advisory board in OSTP to make
recommendations to the Weather Modification Subcommittee. The
board would be composed of outside experts including
scientists, engineers and State officials involved in weather
modification operations. The board would examine potential uses
for weather modification research and would evaluate the
efficacy of weather modification research.

Section 6. Cooperation with Weather Modification Subcommittee

Section 6 would instruct Federal agencies to cooperate with
the Weather Modification Subcommittee.

Changes in Existing Law

In compliance with paragraph 12 of rule XXVI of the Standing
Rules of the Senate, the Committee states that the bill as
reported would make no change to existing law.

https://www.congress.gov/congressional-report/109th-congress/senate-report/202/1?overview=closed

[Senate Report 109-202]
[From the U.S. Government Publishing Office]



109th Congress
1st Session SENATE Report
109-202
_______________________________________________________________________
Calendar No. 319

WEATHER MODIFICATION RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER AUTHORIZATION ACT
OF 2005

__________

R E P O R T

OF THE

COMMITTEE ON COMMERCE, SCIENCE, AND TRANSPORTATION

on

S. 517





DATE deg.December 8, 2005.--Ordered to be printed

Filed under authority of the order of the Senate of November 18, 2005
SENATE COMMITTEE ON COMMERCE, SCIENCE, AND TRANSPORTATION
one hundred ninth congress
second session

TED STEVENS, Alaska, Chairman
DANIEL K. INOUYE, Hawaii, Co-Chairman
JOHN McCAIN, Arizona JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER IV, West
CONRAD BURNS, Montana Virginia
TRENT LOTT, Mississippi JOHN F. KERRY, Massachusetts
KAY BAILEY HUTCHISON, Texas BYRON L. DORGAN, North Dakota
OLYMPIA J. SNOWE, Maine BARBARA BOXER, California
GORDON H. SMITH, Oregon BILL NELSON, Florida
JOHN ENSIGN, Nevada MARIA CANTWELL, Washington
GEORGE ALLEN, Virginia FRANK LAUTENBERG, New Jersey
JOHN E. SUNUNU, New Hampshire E. BENJAMIN NELSON, Nebraska
JIM DeMINT, South Carolina MARK PRYOR, Arkansas
DAVID VITTER, Louisiana
Lisa Sutherland, Staff Director
Christine Drager Kurth, Deputy Staff Director
David Russell, Chief Counsel
Margaret Cummisky, Democratic Staff Director and Chief Counsel
Samuel Whitehorn, Democratic Deputy Staff Director and General Counsel
Calendar No. 319
109th Congress Report
SENATE
1st Session 109-202

======================================================================




WEATHER MODIFICATION RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER AUTHORIZATION ACT
OF 2005

_______


December 8, 2005.--Ordered to be printed

Filed under authority of the order of the Senate of November 18, 2005

_______


Mr. Stevens, from the Committee on Commerce, Science, and
Transportation, submitted the following

R E P O R T

[To accompany S. 517]

The Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, to
which was referred the bill (S. 517) to establish the Weather
Modification Operations and Research Board, and for other
purposes, having considered the same, reports favorably thereon
with an amendment (in the nature of a substitute) and
recommends that the bill (as amended) do pass.

Purpose of the Bill

The purpose of S. 517, as set forth in section 2 of the bill
is, ``to develop and implement a comprehensive and coordinated
national weather modification research policy and a national
cooperative Federal and State program of weather modification
research and development.''

Background and Needs

Weather modification refers to the intentional modification
of atmospheric processes by human activities. For a number of
years the Federal government supported research for weather
modification. Federal support for weather modification research
and development peaked in the mid-1970s and has since declined
due in part to both a lack of a statistical confirmation of
hail suppression and rain enhancement seeding experiments and a
shift from federally funded in-house weather modification
research and development to cooperative Federal/State weather
modification research. Currently, there is no Federal funding
for weather modification activities.

Summary of Provisions

The bill would create a subcommittee in the Office of Science
and Technology Policy (OSTP) to coordinate a national weather
modification research program. The subcommittee would be co-
chaired by representatives from the National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the National Science
Foundation (NSF), and would have representation from the
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and other
appropriate Federal agencies.
The subcommittee would be required to submit a plan for
weather modification research that describes goals and
activities, evaluates existing programs, makes suggestions on
coordination with existing programs, and provides an estimation
of Federal funding for weather modification research. The
program would include activities to improve the understanding
of processes related to weather modification and the potential
negative impacts of weather modification.
The bill also would establish an advisory board in OSTP to
make recommendations to the subcommittee. This advisory board
would be composed of outside experts including scientists,
engineers and State officials involved in weather modification
operations. The advisory board would examine potential uses for
weather modification research and evaluate the efficacy of
weather modification research.

Legislative History

The Weather Modification Research and Technology Transfer
Authorization Act of 2005 (S. 517) was introduced by Senator
Hutchison on March 3, 2005 and referred to the Senate Committee
on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. The Subcommittee on
Disaster Prevention and Prediction and the Subcommittee on
Science and Space held a joint hearing on S. 517 on November
10, 2005. On November 17, 2005, the Committee considered the
bill in an open Executive Session. Senator Hutchison offered an
amendment in the nature of a substitute. The Committee, without
objection, adopted the substitute and ordered S. 517 be
reported with the amendment.

Estimated Costs

In accordance with paragraph 11(a) of rule XXVI of the
Standing Rules of the Senate and section 403 of the
Congressional Budget Act of 1974, the Committee provides the
following cost estimate, prepared by the Congressional Budget
Office:

December 1, 2005.
Hon. Ted Stevens,
Chairman, Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, U.S.
Senate, Washington, DC.
Dear Mr. Chairman: The Congressional Budget Office has
prepared the enclosed cost estimate for S. 517, the Weather
Modification Research and Development Policy Act of 2005.
If you wish further details on this estimate, we will be
pleased to provide them. The CBO staff contact is Matthew
Pickford.
Sincerely,
Douglas Holtz-Eakin.
Enclosure.

S. 517--Weather Modification Research and Development Policy Act of
2005

S. 517 would establish within the Office of Science and
Technology Policy (OSTP) a new Weather Modification
Subcommittee and a Weather Modification Research Advisory
Board. Weather modification is the general term that refers to
any human attempt to alter the weather. The subcommittee would
consist of representatives from the National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration, the National Science Foundation,
and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and would
be responsible for coordinating a national research program on
weather modification. The advisory board would consist of nine
members with weather expertise from outside the federal
government, appointed by the Director of OSTP to advise the
work of the subcommittee.
Within 180 days of enactment, the legislation would require
the Weather Modification Subcommittee to report to the Congress
goals and priorities for federal weather modification research
over the next 10 years. In addition, the subcommittee would
annually report on weather modification research achievements,
progress, budgets, and recommendations. (This legislation would
not specifically authorize any such research.) The advisory
board would work with the subcommittee to make recommendations
on weather modification issues.
Based on information from OSTP, CBO expects that the new
subcommittee and advisory board would require a small increase
in staff and overall administrative expenses to coordinate a
national research program on weather modification. We estimate
that implementing S. 517 would cost about $1 million annually,
assuming appropriation of the necessary amounts. Enacting the
legislation would not affect direct spending or revenues.
S. 517 contains no intergovernmental or private-sector
mandates as defined in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act;. any
costs to state, local, or tribal governments would result from
complying with conditions of federal assistance.
The CBO staff contact for this estimate is Matthew
Pickford. This estimate was approved by Peter H. Fontaine,
Deputy Assistant Director for Budget Analysis.

Regulatory Impact Statement

In accordance with paragraph 11(b) of rule XXVI of the
Standing Rules of the Senate, the Committee provides the
following evaluation of the regulatory impact of the
legislation, as reported:

NUMBER OF PERSONS COVERED

The bill would require OSTP to develop a national weather
modification policy. The bill would not authorize any new
regulations and, therefore, would not subject any individuals
or businesses to new regulations.

ECONOMIC IMPACT

S. 517 would not have an adverse economic impact on the
nation's economy. The Act would not authorize any new spending.

PRIVACY

The reported bill would have little, if any, impact on the
personal privacy of U.S. citizens.

PAPERWORK

The reported bill would not increase paperwork requirements
significantly for individuals and businesses. Section 4 of the
Act would require OSTP to submit a 10-year plan to Congress and
an annual report to the President and Congress.

Section-by-Section Analysis


Section 1. Short title

Section 1 would establish the short title of the bill as the
``Weather Modification Research and Development Policy
Authorization Act of 2005.''

Section 2. Purpose

Section 2 would establish the purpose of the bill to develop
a comprehensive national weather modification research policy.

Section 3. Definitions

Section 3 would define various terms in the act, including
``Board'', ``Research and Development'', and ``Weather
Modification.''

Section 4. Weather Modification Subcommittee

Section 4 would create a subcommittee in OSTP to coordinate a
national weather modification research program. The
subcommittee would be co-chaired by NOAA and NSF, and would
have representation from NASA and other appropriate Federal
agencies.
The section would require the Subcommittee to submit a plan
for weather modification research that would describe goals and
activities, evaluate existing programs, make suggestions on
coordination with existing programs, and provide an estimation
of Federal funding for weather modification research.
The section states that the program may include activities to
improve the understanding of processes related to weather
modification including cloud seeding, cloud modeling, improved
forecast technologies, as well as the potential negative
impacts of weather modification.
Finally the section would require the Board to submit an
annual report on the activities conducted pursuant to this
section.

Section 5. Weather modification research advisory board established

Section 5 would establish an advisory board in OSTP to make
recommendations to the Weather Modification Subcommittee. The
board would be composed of outside experts including
scientists, engineers and State officials involved in weather
modification operations. The board would examine potential uses
for weather modification research and would evaluate the
efficacy of weather modification research.

Section 6. Cooperation with Weather Modification Subcommittee

Section 6 would instruct Federal agencies to cooperate with
the Weather Modification Subcommittee.

Changes in Existing Law

In compliance with paragraph 12 of rule XXVI of the Standing
Rules of the Senate, the Committee states that the bill as
reported would make no change to existing law.

https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/CRPT-109srpt202/html/CRPT-109srpt202.htm Past Chairmen
Committee on Commerce & Manufacturing (1816-1825)

William Hunter (F-RI) 1816-1817
Nathan Sanford (R-NY) 1817-1820
Mahlon Dickerson (R-NJ) 1820-1825
Committee on Commerce (1825-1927)

James Lloyd (NR-MA) 1825-1826
Josiah Johnston (NR-LA) 1826-1827
Levi Woodbury (D-NH) 1827-1831
John Forsyth (D-GA) 1831-1832
William R. King (D-AL) 1832-1833
Nathaniel Silsbee (W-MA) 1833-1835
John Davis (W-MA) 1835-1836
William R. King (D-AL) 1836-1841
Jabez Huntington (W-CT) 1841-1845
William Haywood (D-NC) 1845-1846
John Dix (D-NY) 1846-1849
Hannibal Hamlin (D-ME) 1849-1856
Henry Dodge (D-WI) 1856-1857
Clement Clay (D-AL) 1857-1861
Zachariah Chandler (R-MI) 1861-1875
Roscoe Conkling (R-NY) 1875-1879
John B. Gordon (D-GA) 1879-1880
Matt Ransom (D-GA) 1880-1881
Samuel J. R. McMillan (R-MN) 1881-1887
William P. Frye (R-ME) 1887-1893
Matt Ransom (D-NC) 1893-1895
William P. Frye (R-ME) 1895-1911
Knute Nelson (R-MN) 1911-1913
James P. Clarke (D-AR) 1913-1916
Duncan U. Fletcher (D-FL) 1916-1919
Wesley L. Jones (R-WA) 1919-1930
Hiram W. Johnson (R-CA) 1930-1933
Hubert D. Stephens (D-MS) 1933-1935
Royal S. Copeland (D-NY) 1935-1939
Josiah W. Bailey (D-NC) 1939-1947
Committee on Interstate Commerce (1887-1947)

Shelby M. Cullom (R-IL) 1887-1893
Matthew Butler (D-SC) 1893-1895
Shelby M. Cullom (R-IL) 1895-1901
Stephen Elkins (R-WV) 1901-1911
Moses E. Clapp (R-MN) 1911-1913
Francis G. Newlands (D-NV) 1913-1917
Ellison D. Smith (D-SC) 1917-1919
Albert B. Cummins (R-IA) 1919-1924
Ellison D. Smith (D-SC) 1924-1925
James E. Watson (R-IN) 1925-1928
James Couzens (R-MI) 1928-1933
Clarence C. Dill (D-WA) 1933-1935
Burton K. Wheeler (D-MT) 1935-1947
Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce (1947-1961)

Wallace H. White, Jr. (R-ME) 1947-1949
Edwin C. Johnson (D-CO) 1949-1953
Charles W. Tobey (R-NH) 1953
John W. Bricker (R-OH) 1953-1955
Warren G. Magnuson (D-WA) 1955-1961
Committee on Commerce (1961-1977)

Warren G. Magnuson (D-WA) 1961-1977
Committee on Commerce, Science & Transportation (1977-Present)

Warren G. Magnuson (D-WA) 1977-1978
Howard W. Cannon (D-NV) 1978-1981
Bob Packwood (R-OR) 1981-1985
John Danforth (R-MO) 1985-1987


Ernest F. Hollings (D-SC) 1987-1995
Larry Pressler (R-SD) 1995-1997
John McCain (R-AZ) 1997-2001
Ernest F. Hollings (D-SC) 2001
John McCain (R-AZ) 2001
Ernest F. Hollings (D-SC) 2001-2003
John McCain (R-AZ) 2003-2005
Ted Stevens (R-AK) 2005-2007
Daniel K. Inouye (D-HI) 2007-2009
John D. Rockefeller IV (D-WV) 2009-2015
John Thune (R-SD) 2015-2019
Roger Wicker (R-MS) 2019-2021
Maria Cantwell (D-WA) 2021-present

https://www.commerce.senate.gov/pastchairmen

MAGNUSON, Warren Grant, a Representative and a Senator from Washington; born in Moorhead, Clay County, Minn., April 12, 1905; attended the public schools, the University of North Dakota at Grand Forks and North Dakota State College; graduated from the University of Washington in 1926, and from the law school in 1929; admitted to the bar the same year and commenced practice in Seattle, Wash.; secretary of the Seattle Municipal League in 1930 and 1931; served as special prosecuting attorney of King County, Wash., in 1931; member, State house of representatives 1933-1934; delegate to the State constitutional convention in 1933; served in the United States Navy during the Second World War, attaining rank of lieutenant commander; United States district attorney in 1934 and prosecuting attorney of King County, Wash., 1934-1936; elected as a Democrat to the Seventy-fifth Congress and to the three succeeding Congresses and served from January 3, 1937, until his resignation on December 13, 1944; appointed to the United States Senate to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Homer T. Bone, and served from December 14, 1944, to January 3, 1945; elected in 1944 for the term commencing January 3, 1945; reelected in 1950, 1956, 1962, 1968 and 1974 and served from December 14, 1944, to January 3, 1981; served as President pro tempore of the Senate during the Ninety-sixth Congress; unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1980; chairman, Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce (Eighty-fourth through Eighty-seventh Congresses), Committee on Commerce (Eighty-eighth through Ninety-fifth Congresses), Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation (Ninety-fifth Congress), Committee on Appropriations (Ninety-fifth and Ninety-sixth Congresses); resumed the practice of law; died in Seattle, Wash., May 20, 1989; interment in Acacia Memorial Park. https://bioguide.congress.gov/search/bio/M000053

SENATE COMMITTEE ON COMMERCE, SCIENCE, AND TRANSPORTATION
ONE HUNDRED NINTH CONGRESS
SECOND SESSION
TED STEVENS, Alaska, Chairman
DANIEL K. INOUYE, Hawaii, Co-Chairman
JOHN MCCAIN, Arizona
CONRAD BURNS, Montana
TRENT LOTT, Mississippi
KAY BAILEY HUTCHISON, Texas
OLYMPIA J. SNOWE, Maine
GORDON H. SMITH, Oregon
JOHN ENSIGN, Nevada
GEORGE ALLEN, Virginia
JOHN E. SUNUNU, New Hampshire
JIM DEMINT, South Carolina
DAVID VITTER, Louisiana
JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER IV, West Virginia
JOHN F. KERRY, Massachusetts
BYRON L. DORGAN, North Dakota
BARBARA BOXER, California
BILL NELSON, Florida
MARIA CANTWELL, Washington
FRANK LAUTENBERG, New Jersey
E. BENJAMIN NELSON, Nebraska
MARK PRYOR, Arkansas
LISA SUTHERLAND, Staff Director
CHRISTINE DRAGER KURTH, Deputy Staff Director
DAVID RUSSELL, Chief Counsel
MARGARET CUMMISKY, Democratic Staff Director and Chief Counsel
SAMUEL WHITEHORN, Democratic Deputy Staff Director and General Counsel

https://www.congress.gov/109/crpt/srpt202/CRPT-109srpt202.pdf