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AIG Insurance Company


AIG traces its roots to 1919, when American Cornelius Vander Starr
established a general insurance agency, American Asiatic Underwriters, in
Shanghai, China. Since then, an enterprising spirit, ingenuity, and tenacity
have built the company into one of the world’s leading insurers. Today, AIG
is focused on what it has been known for since the beginning: the willingness
and ability to provide insurance coverage to meet the diverse needs of its

1919-1929 AIG traces its roots to an insurance organization started by
Cornelius Vander Starr in a two- room office in Shanghai, China

1919 Cornelius Vander Starr establishes a general insurance company, American
Asiatic Underwriters, in Shanghai, China

1925 American Asiatic Underwriters expands beyond mainland China by opening
branches in Hong Kong, Indo-China (Vietnam), and the Philippines.

1926 The first US office, American International Underwriters (AIU), opens in
New York City.

1930-1939The organization expands its Asian presence and begins operations in Latin America.

1931 C.V. Starr invests in a second life insurance operation, international
Assurance Company, in Hong Kong.

1937 First Latin American market operation opens in Cuba.

1939 Company headquarters relocates from Shanghai, China, to New York City.

1940-1949 After World War II, operations begin in new markets across the
globe, including Japan and Germany.

1946 Soon after World War II, C.V. Starr opens American International
Underwriters offices, in Japan and Germany to provide insurance for the US

1949 C.V.Starr's insurance organization ceases operations in the People's
Republic of China and relocates to Hong Kong.

1950 -1959 Growth continues in the US through the acquisition of a general
insurer, and worldwide with the opening of operations in Australia and the

1951 AIU establishes its first Middle Eastern operation, in Lebanon.

1952 The acquistion of general insurer Globe and Rutgers Insurance Group,
which includes American Home brand, expands the company's domestic market

1953 AIU opens offices in the United Kingdom.

1954 Operations begin in South Korea.

1957 AIU opens in Australia.

1960-1969 American International Group, INC. (AIG) is formed as a unifying
umbrella organization and it begins a new era as a public company.

1961 Worldwide personal accident and health division established.

1966 The company begins writing Directors and Officers (D&O)
liability insurance coverage and later becomes a leading provider.

1967 American International Group (AIG) incorporates in Delaware.

1968 Maurice R. Greenberg succeeds C.V. Starr as company leader.

1969 AIG stock begins publicly trading.

1970- 1979 AIG introduces new energy, transportation, and entertainment
products to serve the needs of specialized industries.

1973 AIG enters Sweden.

1975 AIG is the first US insurance organization to establish a direct
business relationship with the People's Republic of China following a visit
by President and CEO Maurice R. Greenberg.

1977 AIG establishes a joint venture operation in Egypt.

1979 AIG forms joint venture operations with Eastern European insurers in
Hungry, Poland, and Romania.

1980- 1989 AIG lists its shares on the New York Stock Exchange and expands
its business lines to include mortgage insurance.

1980 A pollution liability program is introduced.

1981 AIG acquires mortgage insurer United Guaranty Corporation (UGC).

1984 (Oct 10) AIG begins trading on the New York Stock Exchange.

1987 AIG is the first foreign organization to list on the Tokyo Stock

1990-1999 AIG returns to its roots in China when it receives the first oreign
insurance license granted in over 40 years by the Chinese government. In the
US, the company acquires a leading retirement saving provider.

1992 Lloyd's of London and AIG reach an agreement to establish the first
insurance company underwriting operation located at Lloyd's.

1992 The People's Republic of China grants AIG a license to operate a life
and non-life insurance business i Shanghai.
1994 AIG receives a joint venture license to operate in Russia.

1995 AIG internet site,, launches.

1997 American Home, an AIG subsidiary, receives a license to market
automobile insurance to Japanese consumers.

1997 AIG launches microinsurance, a global operations, with the Foundation
for International Community Assistance (FINCA), in Uganda.

1999 AIG aquires Sun America, Inc., a leading retirement and financial
services company.

2000- 2009 AIG strengthens its position in the US life insurance market, but
by the end of the decade, a global financial crisis begins, and the US
government steps in to support the company.

2001 Tata   and AIG form a joint venture general insurance company in India.

2001 AIG acquires American General Corporation .

2003 Purchasing 9.9% of capital shares, AIG invests in the People's Insurance
Company of China (PICC)

2005 Martin J. Sullivan is appointed AIG President and CEO.

2005 AIG receives a general insurance license in Vietnam.

2005 The company's Disaster Rlief Fund aids Hurricane Katrina recovery and
humanitarian efforts.

2006 AIG aquires Travel Guard ,a provider of travel insurance programs and
emergency travel assistance.

2007 AIG acquires Matrix Direct, Inc., a direct marketer of term life

2008 AIG Chairman Robert Willumstad becomes CEO.

AND eDWARD m. Liddy becomes AIG Chairman and Chief Executive Officer.

2009Robert H. Benmosche is named AIG President and CEO.

2009 AIG befins using social media, with the company's first tweet on
Twitter, by Matrix Direct.

2010-present AIG restructures itself, fully repays assistance from US
government plus a profit, restores its reputation, and relaunches its brand.

2011 AIG executes its plan to repay the US government and position the US
Treasury to exit its ownership stake in AIG.

2011 The company expands in Japan by acquiring Fuji Fire and Marine, a
property casualty insurer.

2011 AIG supports relief efforts following a major earthquake and tsunami
in Japan.

2012 AIG rebrands and introduces a new logo.

2014 Peter D. Hancock is named AIG President and CEO.

A.I.G. Lists Banks It Paid With U.S. Bailout Funds


Published: March 15, 2009

Amid rising pressure from Congress and taxpayers, the American International Group on Sunday released the names of dozens of financial institutions that benefited from the Federal Reserve’s decision last fall to save the giant insurer from collapse with a huge rescue loan.

Mark Lennihan/Associated Press

With public anger rising, A.I.G. disclosed some financial institutions that benefited from the federal bailouts meant to prop up the troubled insurance giant.

Financial companies that received multibillion-dollar payments owed by A.I.G. include Goldman Sachs ($12.9 billion), Merrill Lynch ($6.8 billion), Bank of America ($5.2 billion), Citigroup ($2.3 billion) and Wachovia ($1.5 billion).

Big foreign banks also received large sums from the rescue, including Société Générale of France and Deutsche Bank of Germany, which each received nearly $12 billion; Barclays of Britain ($8.5 billion); and UBS of Switzerland ($5 billion).

A.I.G. also named the 20 largest states, starting with California, that stood to lose billions last fall because A.I.G. was holding money they had raised with bond sales.

In total, A.I.G. named nearly 80 companies and municipalities that benefited most from the Fed rescue, though many more that received smaller payments were left out.

The list, long sought by lawmakers, was released a day after the disclosure that A.I.G. was paying out hundreds of millions of dollars in bonuses to executives at the A.I.G. division where the company’s crisis originated. That drew anger from Democratic and Republican lawmakers alike on Sunday and left the Obama administration scrambling to distance itself from A.I.G.

“There are a lot of terrible things that have happened in the last 18 months, but what’s happened at A.I.G. is the most outrageous,” Lawrence H. Summers, an economic adviser to President Obama who was Treasury secretary in the Clinton administration, said Sunday on “This Week” on ABC. He said the administration had determined that it could not stop the bonuses.

But some members of Congress expressed outrage over the bonuses. Representative Elijah E. Cummings, a Democrat of Maryland who had demanded more information about the bonuses last December, accused the company’s chief executive, Edward M. Liddy, of rewarding reckless business practices.

“A.I.G. has been trying to play the American people for fools by giving nearly $1 billion in bonuses by the name of retention payments,” Mr. Cummings said on Sunday. “These payments are nothing but a reward for obvious failure, and it is an egregious offense to have the American taxpayers foot the bill.”

An A.I.G. spokeswoman said Sunday that the company would not identify the recipients of these bonuses, citing privacy obligations.

Ever since the insurer’s rescue began, with the Fed’s $85 billion emergency loan last fall, there have been demands for a full public accounting of how the money was used. The taxpayer assistance has now grown to $170 billion, and the government owns nearly 80 percent of the company.

But the insurance giant has refused until now to disclose the names of its trading partners, or the amounts they received, citing business confidentiality.

A.I.G. finally relented after consulting with the companies that received the government support. Mr. Liddy said in a statement on Sunday: “Our decision to disclose these transactions was made following conversations with the counterparties and the recognition of the extraordinary nature of these transactions.”

Still, the disclosure is not likely to calm the ire aimed at the company and its trading partners.

The Fed chairman, Ben S. Bernanke, appearing on “60 Minutes” on CBS on Sunday night, said: “Of all the events and all of the things we’ve done in the last 18 months, the single one that makes me the angriest, that gives me the most angst, is the intervention with A.I.G.”

He went on: “Here was a company that made all kinds of unconscionable bets. Then, when those bets went wrong, they had a — we had a situation where the failure of that company would have brought down the financial system.”

In deciding to rescue A.I.G., the government worried that if it did not bail out the company, its collapse could lead to a cascading chain reaction of losses, jeopardizing the stability of the worldwide financial system.

The list released by A.I.G. on Sunday, detailing payments made between September and December of last year, could bolster that justification by illustrating the breadth of losses that might have occurred had A.I.G. been allowed to fail. Some of the companies, like Goldman Sachs and Société Générale, had exposure mainly through A.I.G.’s derivatives program. Others, though, like Barclays and Citigroup, stood to lose mainly because they were customers of A.I.G.’s securities-lending program, which does not involve derivatives.

But taxpayers may have a hard time accepting that so many marquee financial companies — including some American banks that received separate government help and others based overseas — benefiting from government money.

The outrage that has been aimed at A.I.G. could complicate the Obama administration’s ability to persuade Congress to authorize future bailouts.

Patience with the company’s silence began to run out this month after it disclosed the largest loss in United States history and had to get a new round of government support. Members of Congress demanded in two hearings to know who was benefiting from the bailout and threatened to vote against future bailouts for anybody if they did not get the information.

“A.I.G.’s trading partners were not innocent victims here,” said Senator Christopher J. Dodd, the Connecticut Democrat who presided over one recent hearing. “They were sophisticated investors who took enormous, irresponsible risks.”

The anger peaked over the weekend when correspondence surfaced showing that A.I.G. was on the brink of paying rich bonuses to executives who had dealt in the derivative contracts at the center of A.I.G.’s troubles.

Representative Barney Frank, Democrat of Massachusetts and chairman of the House Financial Services Committee, implicitly questioned the Treasury Department’s judgment about the whether the bonuses were binding.

“We need to find out whether these bonuses are legally recoverable,” Mr. Frank said in an interview on "Fox News Sunday."

Many of the institutions that received the Fed payments were owed money by A.I.G. because they had bought its credit derivatives — in essence, a type of insurance intended to protect buyers should their investments turn sour.

As it turned out, many of their investments did sour, because they were linked to subprime mortgages and other shaky loans. But A.I.G. was suddenly unable to honor its promises last fall, leaving its trading partners exposed to potentially big losses.

When A.I.G. received its first rescue loan of $85 billion from the Fed, in September, it forwarded about $22 billion to the companies holding its shakiest derivatives contracts. Those contracts required large collateral payments if A.I.G.’s credit was downgraded, as it was that month.

Among the beneficiaries of the government rescue were Wall Street firms, like Goldman Sachs, JPMorgan and Merrill Lynch that had argued in the past that derivatives were valuable risk-management tools that skilled investors could use wisely without any intervention from federal regulators. Initiatives to regulate financial derivatives were beaten back during the administrations of Presidents Bill Clinton and George W. Bush.

Goldman Sachs had said in the past that its exposure to A.I.G.’s financial trouble was “immaterial.” A Goldman Sachs representative was not reachable on Sunday to address whether that characterization still held. When asked about its exposure to A.I.G. in the past, Goldman Sachs has said that it used hedging strategies with other investments to reduce its exposure.

Until last fall’s liquidity squeeze, A.I.G. officials also dismissed those who questioned its derivatives operation, saying losses were out of the question.

Edmund L. Andrews and Jackie Calmes contributed reporting.

The History of AIG (Part I)

Cornelius V. Starr was born at Fort Bragg, California in 1892. His father was also named Cornelius Starr, but he died in 1895, according to the son's passport applications in 1919 and 1921, which state that his father had been born in Illinois. C.V.'s mother, interestingly enough, was named Frances Arabelle Starr aka Belle Starr, who had been born in Tennessee in 1868. Census records indicate that in 1910 Belle was head of the house where she lived in the timber logging area of Ten Mile River in northern California's Mendocino County, where her mother and brother, Frances and William J. Hart (age 36 and a machinist at a railroad shop), lived with her, as well as a widower named Thomas Shelton and his two sons. As an occupation, she merely listed "own income," whereas Shelton indicated he was a "tree marker" in the woods. Most of the neighbors in the area were employed in the timber industry that monopolized Mendocino County at that time.

Ten years earlier (1900) the head of household was her husband, John B. Starr, possibly her first (deceased) husband's brother. John had been born in Illinois to Dutch parents in 1873 and listed his occupation as "hotel keeper." There was also Benjamin Starr, two years older than C.V. and John, four years younger, born one year after C.V.'s father had died. At that same time her future "husband," Shelton, was also living in Fort Bragg (Ten Mile River) with his wife Grace and their two sons--Clarence and George--and working as a bartender.

In 1919, when she applied for a passport to go to Japan, she lived at 1204 Grand Street in Alameda, CA., the same address given for her son John, who signed an affidavit for his brother's passport, giving his occupation as "engineer." Her next passport application in 1923 gave an address of 2469 55th Avenue in Oakland, southeast of the previous address. See google map (at and zoom out to get a good overview of this area:
Note that Alameda Naval Air Station is very close to both addresses.
The campus of UC Berkeley is just to the north.
See also the island in San Francisco Bay just west of Oakland called "Treasure Island."
MAE BRUSSELL: Now, we're going to talk briefly about Charles Manson and Charles Watson, and the implications in this particular case, and how I follow it and why it's of interest to me. Because every case beyond what the news media tells you, you're looking for facts. You're looking�like in the Oswald case, they tell you that Oswald was a communist, or he was a misfit in society. But then when I see my documents, that he had cameras and walkie-talkies, and electronic devices, security clearances�then I want to know more about Lee Harvey Oswald. And I want to know more about Charles Manson because he was thirty-two and did spend twenty-two years of his life in jail.

Now a prominent attorney by the name of George Shibley who works with groups in the Middle East�in Beverly Hills, has powerful connections�met with Charles Manson just before he got out of jail in Treasure Island. And no one will know what conversation transpired between Mr. Shibley, or why he was up there. Or why Charles Manson is unknown, this illegitimate child of a sixteen year-old girl, no family or kin. No one would know how Charles Manson would get such a famous Beverly Hills attorney to visit him before he's paroled. No one will ever know the conversation that transpired between those men. But what we do know is that when Charles Manson got out of Treasure Island in 1967, at the height of the Haight Ashbury scene, he got a bus, a large bus�and he did not buy it. He did not have a job, and he had credit cards for gasoline. Now in the trial some subject was made up that one of the girls stole a credit card from her family to buy Charley gasoline. I am sure the parents would have had him arrested before long; you can't go for two years on a stolen credit card. Charley was never arrested. And one of the questions in one of the articles I have is, it simply said: He had a credit card. And in order to do a study of a covert operation, or a murder, or a simple murder: who paid the gasoline for Charley Manson?
Let's pause here and try to figure out whether Mae was correct in what she was saying. According to Wiki, Treasure Island:
is entirely within the City and County of San Francisco, whose territory extends far into San Francisco Bay and to the tip of the island of Alameda, California. Built by the federal government, Treasure Island was planned for and used as an airport for Pan American Airline's Pacific Rim service of flying boats, of which the China Clipper is an example. After the World's Fair 1939�40 exhibition, the island was scheduled to be used as an airport when the Navy offered to exchange Mills Field on the San Francisco Peninsula near the city of Millbrae for the island. The City and County of San Francisco accepted the swap, and the airport was built at Mills Field. During World War II, Treasure Island became part of the Treasure Island Naval Base, and served largely as an electronics and radio communications training school, and as the major Navy departure point for sailors in the Pacific. In 1996, Treasure Island and the Presidio Army Base were decommissioned and opened to public control, under stipulations. Treasure Island is now part of District 6 of the City and County of San Francisco, though it is still owned by the Navy.

Where did Mae get the information that Manson was locked up at Treasure Island? He had previously been at Terminal Island near Los Angeles; then later at McNeil Island in Washington State, from which he was, according to Bugliosi in Helter Skelter, transferred in June 1966 to Terminal Island for release. "He was released at 8:15 a.m. on March 21, 1967, and given transportation to Los Angeles. That same day he requested and received permission to go to San Francisco. It was there, in the Haight-Ashbury section, that spring, that the Family was born."

Ed Sanders says in The Family:
After five years at McNeil Island, several friends of Manson, "prison lawyers"--prisoners with legal expertise--worked out a legal maneuver whereby on June 29, 1966, Charlie was transferred from McNeil Island, Washington, to Terminal Island prison in San Pedro, California near Los Angeles. Probably it was felt that he stood a better chance of early release at Terminal Island. At Terminal Island Manson really began to prepare for operation superstar. He spent the better part of a year there. Friends remember him as being fanatically dedicated to music and singing....Phil Kaufman, in jail on a federal marijuana charge,...gave Manson the name of a person at Universal Studios in Hollywood where Manson, in late '67, would record his songs.

So what happened between March and late 1967? Sanders is totally at odds with Bugliosi here. Sanders says:
At first, Charlie walked around and rode buses in Los Angeles for about three days after leaving Terminal Island. Then he went north to Berkeley to visit some friends he had met in prison....He spent time at the University of California Berkeley campus with his guitar....[At UC campus] he met slim, red-haired Mary Brunner of Eau Claire, Wisconsin, a recent graduate of the University of Wisconsin who was working at the library at the U.C. Also working in Berkeley then, at the U.C. Art Museum, was Abigail Folger, heiress to the Folger Coffee Company fortune....A young redhead named Lynne Fromme joined Mary Brunner as addition number two to the inner circle of ladies....picked up near the beach in Venice...Redondo Beach...spring and summer of 1967...636 Cole in Haight Ashbury....

Mary Brunner kept her job at the library, and her address in Berkeley was the one given to Manson's parole officer...In July of 1967 he was picked up by a man named the Rev. Dean Morehouse, who took him home to San Jose, where he met his wife and fourteen-year-old daughter, Ruth Ann aka Ouish. Manson's tale of meeting Morehouse, told to a lawyer during his later trial for murder, was that Rev. Morehouse, driving a pickup truck, picked Charlie up and kicked off a friendship of great duration. Until Morehouse a year or so later would be sent to prison for forking over LSD to a thirteen-year-old girl.

Manson admired a piano at the Morehouse home, and the reverend gave it to him. Manson spotted a Volkswagen van in Morehouse's neighborhood and made a deal to trade the piano for it. Morehouse brought the piano over in his truck, and Manson owned a 1961 microbus bearing the license plat CSY 087.

At the end of July 1967 the troupe traveled to the Mendocino coast north of Frisco where Mary Brunner became pregnant....On July 28, 1967, Manson was arrested in Mendocino County for trying to come to the aid of a runaway being apprehended by the police. The runaway was Ouish, the daughter of Reverend and Mrs. Morehouse, whom Manson had enticed into joining his voyage. The parents had sent the fuzz after him, and he received a suspended sentence.

The girls were detailed well at a website under the the title of Charles Manson & Family, but nothing explains how Charlie really got to San Francisco and why he took a trip to Mendocino County, where C.V. Starr was born.
"History records that the Money Changers have used every form of abuse, intrigue, deceit and violent means possible to maintain their control over governments by controlling money and its issuance." --James Madison
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04-02-2009, 09:23 PM #2 Jan Klimkowski Jan Klimkowski is offline
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According to Mae Brussell, Shibley was involved in Sirhan Sirhan's trial, see post 11 at the thread linked below:

Now this same Lawrence Schiller is the man who gave Sue Atkins a $150,000 to turn the state's evidence to say that Manson masterminded the murders. She made $150,000. It was described as an unusual legal trick. Joseph Ball, who worked with the Warren Commission, was with parties involved in the Sharon Tate massacre. George Shibley, who worked with Sirhan�and McKissick was in his office�they worked with the Sirhan case. They were in on the Sharon Tate case. The lawyers overlap.
"It means this War was never political at all, the politics was all theatre, all just to keep the people distracted...."
"Proverbs for Paranoids 4: You hide, They seek."
"They are in Love. Fuck the War."
Gravity's Rainbow, Thomas Pynchon

"Ccollanan Pachacamac ricuy auccacunac yahuarniy hichascancuta."
The last words of the last Inka, Tupac Amaru, led to the gallows by men of god & dogs of war
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06-23-2009, 09:57 PM #3 Carol Thompson Carol Thompson is offline
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Jun 2009
Default Starr Had Help Founding AIG
Clement James Smith and Helen Bruce Cleveland met in 1919, while both were in Siberia working for the Red Cross. She was the daughter of Mrs. Ralph Dwinel Cleveland of New York City. After marrying, they planned to reside in Shanghai, China. (Red Cross Workers Abroad to Wed. New York Times, Jun. 17, 1920; Miss Cleveland Weds C.J. Smith. New York Times, Jul. 2, 1920.) He was the son of Mr. and Mrs. J.J. Smith of Alameda, Cal. (Red Cross Worker Back From Siberia. Oakland Tribune, Jun. 20, 1920.) They lived in the Orient for 18 years before returning to San Francisco in 1938. Four years later they bought a house in the suburb of Hillsborough. Mr. Smith was president of American International Underwriters. (Chat and Comment. San Mateo Times, Jul. 14, 1942.) "1920 was a momentous year for Smith, who that year joined C.V. Starr and the American Asiatic Underwriters. He worked and traveled in China for seven years, spent a year in New York, and then returned to Shanghai where he and his wife decided they wanted to spend the rest of their lives. The couple did build a home in Shanghai in 1932, but he returned to the United States four years later to help in the reorganization of the United States Life Insurance Company as chairman of the AIU Corporation. During World War II, he was an expert on China with "Wild Bill" Donovan. In 1945, Smith, Merv Griffin Sr. (the father of the TV personality), Kemper Smith, and Robert Koshland formed the Ascot Tennis Club on Smith's private courts. He was a co-founder [with C.V. Starr] of the Mount Mansfield Corporation which developed the ski resort at Stowe, Vt. He was a member of the "Totem Sun" Camp of the Bohemian Grove. (Ascot Tennis Club Founder Is Honored on His Birthday. Talk of the Times, by Mary Jane Clinton. San Mateo Times, Nov. 21, 1971.) He gave $1 million to Mills Hospital in San Mateo, and another $1 million to the Smith-Kettlewell Eye Research Foundation at the Pacific Medical Center. (Magnate Gives Another Million to Medicine. Modesto Bee and News, Feb. 20, 1973.) He died a few weeks later. (Peninsula Benefactor Dies at 78. San Mateo Times, Mar. 8, 1973.)

Helen C. Smith died in 1957. (Deaths. San Mateo Times, Jul. 20.) Her father, Raph Dwinel Cleveland (b. 1851) was traveling auditor of Illinois for the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad until 1885. He married Aurora Eustis of Milton, Mass., the daughter of Alexander Brooks Eustis and Aurora Grelaud. They lived in Burlington, Iowa until 1885, then Minneapolis, and Chicago in the 1890s. His brother, Henry Russell Cleveland, was a submarine engineer in Colombia in 1880. After Henry's wife, Carmen Sanchez, died in 1894, their children lived in Chicago with their grandfather, Horace William Shaler Cleveland. (The Genealogy of the Cleveland and Cleaveland Families, Vol. 2. By Edward James Cleveland. The Case, Lockwood & Brainard Co., 1899, p. 1770.)

Ralph D. Cleveland's grandfather was the China sea captain and capitalist, Richard Jeffry Cleveland (1773-1860), of Salem, Mass., who worked for Elias H. Derby and made his first voyage in 1792. He knew Thomas H. Perkins from those days, and met James Perkins [Jr.] in 1806. Later, William Shaler was his business partner. He founded a prep school at Lancaster, Mass. whose first teacher was Jared Sparks, later President of Harvard. He reportedly "never used tobacco in any form." He lived in Burlington, N.J. until 1854, when he moved to Danvers, Mass. to live with his son. (Voyages of a Merchant Navigator of the Days that are Past. By Richard Jeffry Cleveland and Horace William Shaler Cleveland. Harper, 1886, p. 238.)

Ralph D. Cleveland's uncle, Henry Russell Cleveland, married James Perkins Jr.'s daughter, Sarah Paine Perkins, in 1838. (Marriages. Boston Atlas, Feb. 3, 1838; Cleveland - Perkins Family Papers. From Eliza Callahan Cleveland. New York Public Library.) Henry and his older brother, Richard J. Cleveland, both graduated from Harvard in 1827. Richard was a pioneering settler in Olin, Iowa. (Commencement. New York Spectator, Sep. 7, 1827; Obituary. Boston Daily Advertiser, Sep. 12, 1877.)
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06-24-2009, 08:08 PM #4 Linda Minor Linda Minor is offline
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According to a 1966 syndicated story by Ken McKenna in the Herald Tribune Service:
Cornelius V. Starr is probably the most dedicated skiing businessman. A man of scattered interests, he built his fortune in China as owner of the Shanghai Evening Post & Mercury, was deported in 1940 and returned to expand his wealth through insurance investments.

He began skiing at 47 and was attracted to the Stowe-
Mount Mainsfield area of Vermont by its dependable winter
conditions. Over the years, he financed construction of ski lifts, gradually boosted his investment past $2 million, acquired the majority interest in a Mt. Mansfield hotel, the mountain highway, an elaborate inn and 3,000 acres of mountainside.
But his enchantment with skiing stops short of bad business procedures. He once told a friend: "I've never put more into Mt. Mansfield than I can afford to lose."

The short version of his rise to riches is found at
in "Tales of old Shanghai - Library - Fortune magazine Jan 1935":
Born in Fort Bragg, California, switched to insurance, joined the Army, caught the wanderlust,
got a job with Pacific Mail S. S. Co., arrived in shanghai in 1919 as stenographer with 300 Japanese yen in his pocket. Destiny led him to the office of Frank Jay Raven and with Mr. Raven he founded American Asiatic Underwriters Federal, Inc. U. S. A. Which prospered
He is forever on the go-Shanghai to New York, New York to London, London to Singapore. He goes with, and in quest of, ideas, talks insurance everywhere, spreads his interests out through Asia, has just purchased the United States Life Insurance Co. in the U. S. (assets, $6,000,000). In his rare periods of quiescence he lives with a maiden aunt on the eighth floor of the North-China Building, 17 the Bund, where Asia Life and American Asiatic are also housed. He belongs to the usual Shanghai clubs, dines out, drinks sherry flips solemnly in
corners of hilarious night clubs. He is not really social. And he has never married.

Starr's good and powerful friend in Shanghai is Frank Jay Raven, and the team of Starr and Raven has surged along with rare interruptions since 1919. Likewise a Californian, Mr. Raven came to Shanghai in 1904, when the foreign settlement was predominantly British. He got a job as engineer from the Shanghai Municipal Council. but was soon lured from his profession by the irresistible economic logic of Shanghai real estate. Starting with assets of $4,000, he had made enough by 1914 to found the Raven Trust Co., on which he proceeded to superimpose what Shanghai calls "the Raven interests" - chiefly the American-Oriental Finance Corp., the American-Oriental Banking Corp., and the Asia Realty Co.--a total of some $70,000,000 in assets. Such was the structure, at least partially built, into which young C. V. Starr stepped in 1919, with the purpose of adding an insurance empire thereto.
"History records that the Money Changers have used every form of abuse, intrigue, deceit and violent means possible to maintain their control over governments by controlling money and its issuance." --James Madison
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06-24-2009, 08:41 PM #5 Carol Thompson Carol Thompson is offline
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One of Mrs. Smith's sisters was Mrs. Amos R. Little. "Capt. Amos Little, parachuting doctor from the Colorado Springs, Colo. Army Air Base, was reported in Helena in readiness to drop down to the site of the [airplane] wreck." (Fresnan Is Copilot Of Lost Plane; Wreck Is Sighted. Fresno Bee, May 9, 1946.) "Dr. Amos Little of Helena, Mont., temporary chairman of the Olympic Ski Games committee, said the tryouts for the 1952 Olympic ski team will be held next March 10 and 11." (Sun Valley Named for Olympic Tryouts. Oakland Tribune, May 7, 1950.) [He was manager of the US Olympic ski team in 1960-1964], and a vice president of the Federation International de Ski in 1972. (Olympic Ski Disaster? By Omer Crane. Fresno Bee, Jan. 19, 1972.) Amos Rogers Little 3d was a skier of note until an injury in 1971 or 2. What a coincidence.

I'm not sure of their relationship to Amos Rogers Little b. Marshfield, Mass., who moved to Philadelphia and became a director of the Pennsylvania Railroad. He had a wife, but I haven't found any mention of children.
Last edited by Carol Thompson; 06-24-2009 at 08:43 PM.
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06-27-2009, 10:03 PM #6 Carol Thompson Carol Thompson is offline
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Says Yahoo Babelfish:

AIG founder C.V. Starr (Cornelius Vander Starr) was born in 1892 an American California's small town, in 1914 he left home to San Francisco to sell the automobile insurance. in 1918 entered a war, but by on battlefield, a world war had not been ended. Finally, Starr to Japan's Yokohama, has held the post of the American Pacific Ocean Oil tanker Company's staff member. Japanese a half year later, he thinks Asia's financial center and his opportunity should in China, therefore on the body only brings 300 Japanese Yen to come to Shanghai.

He first in another American, the Frank J. Raven bank and the Real estate company worked, receives the insurance aspect service (Raven to come to Shanghai in 1904, has opened bank and Real estate company successfully very quickly, in 1935 enterprise collapsed, causes the Sino-US commercial world to shock scandal). Starr very quick has own Insurance company ?American Asiatic Underwriters, Inc., he hurried to hire two Chinese staff members, moved to Nanjing Rd. and the Sichuan road's street intersection the company - at that time happen to was 1919 at the end of December.
His good friend concurrently colleague Mansfield Freeman joined Starr in 1924 Asia Life Insurance Company. Before then Freeman is teaches the philosophy and English in Beijing's Tsinghua University (1919-1924). He returned to the US in 1941. 1930 to 1941 has been Asian Life insurance Company's President in Shanghai. In afterward years, Freeman also wrote one about to wear shakes (1724-1777) and Mencius's work.

From the US media: Money Career Ends [picture, caption "Frank J. Raven"] Climb to the heights as an international financier ended for Frank J. Raven, an American who headed a $50,000,000 business in Shanghai, China, when he was convicted on embezzlement charges growing out of the collapse of the "Raven Group" of companies of which he was president. The financial failure was so extensive that it virtually pauperized many thousands of people in China. Raven, a native of Alamo, Cal., went to China in 1904." (Tyrone Daily Herald, Mar. 2, 1936.)
My Twenty Five Years In China (1945)
Author: John B. Powell

"...Shanghai became the base of operation for
salesmen of fake jewelry, worthless stocks, patent medicines,
dangerous drugs, etc. One group had promoted an insurance
company with the object of unloading the stock on rich Chinese
in Malaya, and were astonished when Chinese business flowed
in and the company unexpectedly became prosperous and

Raven had come to China from California and obtained a
position in the Public Works Department of the municipal
government of the International Settlement. He worked in the
department long enough to obtain information regarding new
road extensions, then resigned and organized a real estate com-
pany. Using his inside knowledge of the location of new roads
and streets, the company successfully promoted a new subdi-
vision which it called "Columbia Circle." With this start the
company branched into various promotional activities, including
the organization of the American-Oriental Banking Corpora-
tion, Raven Trust Company, American Finance Company, and
various other enterprises, retail and industrial, all of a specula-
tive character. Shares in the various enterprises were widely sold
to Chinese and foreigners, and the banks launched an intensive
drive for deposits in the missionary community and among
foreign residents* of the Settlement."
Descendants of Peter Raven
Generation No. 3

ii. FRANK JAY RAVEN, b. June 27, 1875, Alamo, CA; d. July 11, 1943, San Jose, CA; m. ELSIE MAUDE SITES, September 16, 1909.
Cause of Death: coronary thrombosis
Medical Information: arthritis, continuous stomach trouble, coronary thrombosis, angina pectoris
Last edited by Carol Thompson; 06-27-2009 at 10:14 PM.
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06-27-2009, 10:08 PM #7 Carol Thompson Carol Thompson is offline
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Interment In Doylestown Was This Afternoon
Lived in Bucks County
The funeral of George Alfred Moszkowski of Point Pleasant and New York City was held last night at The Abbey, Lexington avenue at 66th st., New York and interment was made today in the Doylestown Cemetery.

Mr. Moszkowski, who was a founder and leading figure in the American International Insurance Group, died in a New York hospital after a short illness.

He was born in Warsaw, Poland, Dec. 18, 18?6, was an officer in both the Cavalry and Air Force of the Imperial Army of Russia prior to 1918. Upon the withdrawal of Russia from World War I, Mr. Moszkowski became attache to the British Army in the Middle East.

He had attended the University of Liege and was graduated from [illegible] degree of electrical engineer.

In 192?, Mr. Moszkowski became associated with Cornelius V. Starr, in American Asian Underwriters, Shanghai, China, the original unit of the worldwide American International insurance companies. President of American Asiatic Underwriters from 1923 to 1929, he came to New York in the latter year as vice president of American International Underwriters Corporation and served that company successively as chairman and president until 1941.

While he was president of American International Underwriters Corporation, Mr. Moszkowski established the Havana office of the group to promote the spread of insurance by United States companies throughout Latin America. From 1941 until he died, this was one of his primary interests. He served as chairman of American International Underwriters, S.A. (Cuba), and of Insular Underwriters of Cuba. At the time of his death, he was president and director of American International Insurance Company and of American International Life Insurance Company in Havana. He was also a director of International Underwriters for Latin America, and American International Reinsurance Company.

[illegible] Moszkowski was active in Squadron "A" of the New York National Guard from 1934 to 1940, and strongly supported the Ex-Members Association until his death. He was also a member of India House and The Drug and Chemical Club in New York.
He is survived by his wife, Helen (Karpelenia) and a daughter, Helena Adela.

(Doylestown Daily Intelligencer, Feb. 13, 1952.)

I don't know whether he was related to the Polish composer, Moritz Moszkowski, and his brother, Alexander Moszkowski, who was a friend of Albert Einstein.
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06-28-2009, 04:37 PM #8 Linda Minor Linda Minor is offline
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Quote Originally Posted by Linda Minor View Post
According to a 1966 syndicated story by Ken McKenna in the Herald Tribune Service:
Cornelius V. Starr is probably the most dedicated skiing businessman. A man of scattered interests, he built his fortune in China as owner of the Shanghai Evening Post & Mercury, was deported in 1940 and returned to expand his wealth through insurance investments.

Notice that E. Howard Hunt's early career was somehow connected to Starr's newspaper the Shanghai Post, a fact that the CIA chose to obscure from the public in 1974.

American Spy pg 31, by Hunt, E. Howard (2007)
THE END OF WAR 31 Once free Shanghai quickly came back to life and even the Shanghai Post started back into operation. Reading the paper one fateful day I was shattered to see a headline proclaiming...

Undercover: Memoirs of an American Secret Agent pg 48, by Hunt, E. Howard (1974)
case He suggested we might have a vodka one day in a cafe I agreed and we parted. But from then on Marusha and I met much more circumspectly. Then one morning I read in the reopened Shanghai Post that...

...In the process of pursuing the case, I was required to obtain a certified copy of Dorothy Hunt's death certificate, which I did, obtaining it from the Cook County Coroner's office. A link to a scanned image of this document is at the end of this article. Note the clear copy of E. Howard Hunt's signature. Also note that while Dorothy Hunt was officially pronounced dead on December 8th, 1972, it wasn't until November of 1973--nearly a year later--that the Coroner's signature is dated. Also interesting on this certificate is the lack of a Social Security number.

Dorothy Wetzel Hunt was also an employee for the CIA in the late forties, stationed in Shanghai, China, where she met her future husband. E Howard Hunt lives in southern Florida with his second wife where he continues to write. One of his latest novels (1992) is Body Count. ...
This is a 1953 document:
Dorothy Louise Wetzel Goutiere
She worked at ECA after making application with CIA. She met Hunt in Shanghai in 1948 when he was working on Averell Harriman's staff in China. [At that time, it should be noted that Harriman had been a business partner of Prescott Bush for several years in investment banking firm.]

Dorothy had been married in France and divorced in 1948 from Peter Joffre Goutiere, a Frenchman, in Polk County, Florida.

Keep in mind that when AIG was started, there was no OSS and no CIA, but there was an unofficial intelligence service operating overseas.
by Jon Christian Ryter
... Internet searches suggest that AIG was created in 1919 by a 27-year old named Cornelius Vander Starr, a recently discharged US Army buck private from Fort Bragg, California (a military installation from 1859-64). However, the facts don't support the legend. ...
Legend would have us believe a 27-year old, with no advanced education and no money, who served 8 months in the army at the end of WWI�and who never fought in the war and never took officer's training�was discharged as a 2nd Lieutenant after 8 months of service. Legend would have us believe he joined an insurance brokerage firm, Shean & Deasy and virtually overnight became its manager, yet quit his dream job after only a few months to become a mail clerk with the Pacific Mail Steamship Co. Starr, the legend goes, wanted to see the world�which was why he purportedly joined the Army. (Note: In 1914 the Pacific Mail Steamship Co., was purchased by AIC to get the US mail contracts for Asia, and to serve as a toehold in Asia for AIC. AIC in 1914 had already embarked on the path to creating a global economy. The first attempt by the money mafia to create world government would come in the Treaty of Versailles in 1920. The United States never signed it.)

C.V. Starr, who was born on Oct. 15, 1892, graduated from Fort Bragg [California] High School in 1909. He began selling life insurance for the James Nelson Realty Co. in Fort Bragg [Mendocino County] around 1913. In 1914 he moved to San Francisco to sell auto insurance for the Pacific Coast Casualty Co.

{NY Times, November 13, 1902--The Pacific Coast Casualty Company has been organized in San Francisco, with the following officers: President�Edmund F. Green; Vice President�William M. Pierson; Secretary�F. A. Zane.}

{In June 1914 charges were brought and soon dismissed against Edmund F. Green for embezzlement, as reported in Oakland, CA, which indicated he was a member of the Bohemian Club.}
In 1917 he went to work for an insurance brokerage firm, Shean & Deasy, leaving them to join the army.

{Cornelius J. Deasy was a long-time supervisor of San Francisco, who formed the insurance company in 1916, and who died in 1933 at the age of 59.
"The former supervisor was born in Antioch, Contra Costa County, and for 21 years was an employee of the Pacific Gas and Electric Company...and was one of the first advocates for the building of the Hetch Hetchy project. (Oakland Tribune, 10-18-1933). For more on Hetch Hetchy, see Brechin's Imperial San Francisco. n+hetch&source=bl&ots=ZxmYahGu3u&sig=IYk-PfzuC6uATCMTyVtP3DaqUEE&hl=en&ei=BZxHSpmoIcuWtgepw tynBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1.}
Logic suggests he came out of the service 8 months later when the Armistice was signed as a buck private. As a soldier, he went no where and did nothing at a time when soldiers might spend one whole hitch waiting for one stripe. Some of Starr's biographers claim he came out of the army as a sergeant, others claim he made lieutenant. Neither makes sense and sound like someone remodeling Starr's past to give him a biography worthy of a wealthy man's latter-year stature.

Starr and Frank Raven formed American Asiatic Underwriters�an insurance agency selling policies, not issuing them. Raven had been selling insurance in China since 1904, and had been very successful. He amassed several million dollars, enough to begin underwriting policies. That history's probably correct. At some point, Starr and Raven formulated plans to create an insurance company that would actually insure the policyholders. That, too, is correct. But, that company was not AIG. It was AAU.

Starr returned to the United States and convinced several American insurers�in particular Globe Life, Rutgers and National Union�to act as a re-insurer, covering AAU's risk. There may have been a stipulation that forced AAU to open sales offices in the United States since that happened. But now, at age 29, Starr was on his way. But not with AIG. The new company was American International Underwriters [AIU].

(My research revealed an American International Group IPO to purchase AIU. I could not determine the date of the IPO.) Starr and his partner managed to build a very lucrative, very successful insurance company with relatively low capital in about two decades. They were so successful that AIU was under contract to manage all of AIG's overseas property-casualty business. Using guesswork alone it's likely the IPO was exercised sometime between 1947 when Mao overran China and 1950 when Starr created a new entity, CV Starr & Company. Or, at the latest, in 1955 when he formed the CV Starr Foundation whose wealth was comprised largely of AIG stock that is now worth about $3.5 billion. None of the various websites contain the history of AAU, AIU, AIG or AIC. It's almost like all of them encourage legend building.

The third layer of secrecy like the fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh layers of secrecy are, well...heavily shrouded secrecy. Piled on, layer after layer, to make it impossible for anyone to learn the truth about the wealth of the wealthiest families in the world. That wealth is so vast that it simply can't be measured in terms of dollars and cents.
"History records that the Money Changers have used every form of abuse, intrigue, deceit and violent means possible to maintain their control over governments by controlling money and its issuance." --James Madison
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06-28-2009, 07:27 PM #9 Carol Thompson Carol Thompson is offline
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Mansfield Freeman, Insurance Official, 97
Published: Friday, November 20, 1992
Mansfield Freeman, a retired insurance company executive who helped to develop the insurance industry in China in the 1920's and 30's, died on Tuesday at his home in Greensboro, Vt. He was 97 years old.
Mr. Freeman died of respiratory failure, said John Wooster, a spokesman for the American International Group.
Mr. Freeman, a retired vice president of C. V. Starr & Company, was the last surviving member of the original management group that started an insurance business in China that became the American International Group. During his career, Mr. Freeman held numerous senior executive posts with companies belonging to the group.
In 1921 Mr. Freeman, who spoke Mandarin Chinese, was a professor of philosophy and English at Tsing Hua College in Beijing. That year, he became one of the first employees of Asia Life Insurance Company. He was president of the company throughout much of the 1930's before returning to the United States in 1941.
Mr. Freeman was born in Waltham, Mass. His wife, Mary, died in 1983.
He is survived by his son, Houghton, of Tokyo; two grandchildren, and four great-grandchildren.
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06-28-2009, 10:02 PM #10 Carol Thompson Carol Thompson is offline
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The story traces back to that international Machiavelli, Charles Richard Crane, who in 1909 was nominated by President Taft to be Minister to China. "Mr. Crane has had large experience in foreign affairs, and has been seventeen times to Russia and speaks Russian. His uncle, Prof. Williams, was Professor of Chinese at Yale and wrote a book on China." (President Taft Delighted. New York Times, Jul. 17, 1909.) However, he was recalled by Sec. Knox just as he was about to board the boat for China.

His uncle was Samuel Wells Williams (1812-1884): "Williams was born in Utica, New York and studied at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, New York. On graduation he was elected as a Professor of the Institute. On the June 15, 1833, and still in his twenties, he sailed for China to take charge of the printing press of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions at Guangdong, China. In 1837 he sailed on the Morrison to Japan. Officially this trip was to return some stranded Japanese sailors, but it was also an unsuccessful attempt to open Japan to American trade. On November 20, 1845 Williams married Sarah Walworth. From 1848 to 1851 Williams was the editor of The Chinese Repository, a leading Western journal published in China. In 1853 he was attached to Commodore Matthew Calbraith Perry's expedition to Japan as an official interpreter. In 1855, Williams was appointed Secretary of the United States Legation to China. During his stay in China, he wrote A Tonic Dictionary Of The Chinese Language In The Canton Dialect (??????) in 1856. After years of opposition from the Chinese government, Williams was instrumental in the negotiation of the Treaty of Tientsin, which provided for the toleration of both Chinese and foreign Christians. In 1860, he was appointed charg� d'affaires for the United States in Beijing. He resigned his position on October 25, 1876, 43 years to the day that he first landed at Guangzhou in 1833. Around 1875, he completed a translation of the Book of Genesis and the Gospel of Matthew into Japanese, but the manuscripts were lost in a fire before they could be published. He returned to the United States in 1877 and became the first Professor of Chinese language and Chinese literature in the United States at Yale University. Williams was nominated as president of the American Bible Society on February 3, 1881. He died on February 16, 1884. (Samuel Wells Williams. Wikipedia, accessed Jun. 28, 2009.)

Samuel W. Williams' son, Frederick Wells Williams, was a member of Wolf's Head, 1879, He was instructor in Oriental history at Yale from 1893 to 1900, and then assistant professor of modern Oriental history until retiring in 1925. He was chairman of the executive committee of the Yale Foreign Missionary Society 1902-1917, and chairman of the board of trustees of Yale-in-China since 1917. His grandson, Wayland Wells Williams, graduated from Yale in 1910.

Charles R. Crane's brother, Richard Teller Crane Jr., was a member of Book & Snake 1895.

In 1911, Charles R. Crane financed the China Press at Shanghai: "Most of the money for the purchase of type and mechanical equipment for the China Press was supplied by Charles R. Crane, a Chicago manufacturer, who became a stockholder and director in the enterprise." (My Twenty Five Years In China, by John B. Powell. Macmillan, 1945.)

In politics, Charles R. Crane was a Progressive who supported Cleveland and Taft, but opposed Roosevelt. He was one of the biggest backers of Sen. Robert LaFollete of Wisconsin, and was vice chairman of the Finance Committee in Woodrow Wilson's campaign for President. His banker friends included James B. Forgan, David R. Forgan, George F. Roberts, and Charles G. Dawes. "His father came from Paterson, N.J., and Mrs. Crane was Cornelia W. Smith of that city." (Men Who Will Raise Money. New York Times, Aug. 18, 1912.)

From Wall Street and the Bolshevik Revolution, by Antony Sutton, Chapter IV
"The best-documented example of Wall Street intervention in revolution is the operation of a New York syndicate in the Chinese revolution of 1912, which was led by Sun Yat-sen. Although the final gains of the syndicate remain unclear, the intention and role of the New York financing group are fully documented down to amounts of money, information on affiliated Chinese secret societies, and shipping lists of armaments to be purchased. The New York bankers syndicate for the Sun Yat-sen revolution included Charles B. Hill, an attorney with the law firm of Hunt, Hill & Betts. In 1912 the firm was located at 165 Broadway, New York, but in 1917 it moved to 120 Broadway (see chapter eight for the significance of this address). Charles B. Hill was director of several Westinghouse subsidiaries, including Bryant Electric, Perkins Electric Switch, and Westinghouse Lamp � all affiliated with Westinghouse Electric whose New York office was also located at 120 Broadway. Charles R. Crane, organizer of Westinghouse subsidiaries in Russia, had a known role in the first and second phases of the Bolshevik Revolution.... The work of the 1910 Hill syndicate in China is recorded in the Laurence Boothe Papers at the Hoover Institution. These papers contain over 110 related items, including letters of Sun Yat-sen to and from his American backers. In return for financial support, Sun Yat-sen promised the Hill syndicate railroad, banking, and commercial concessions in the new revolutionary China."

From Wall Street and the Bolshevik Revolution, by Antony Sutton, Chapter II
Consequently, by virtue of preferential treatment for Trotsky, when the S.S. Kristianiafjord left New York on March 26, 1917, Trotsky was aboard and holding a U.S. passport � and in company with other Trotskyire revolutionaries, Wall Street financiers, American Communists, and other interesting persons, few of whom had embarked for legitimate business. This mixed bag of passengers has been described by Lincoln Steffens, the American Communist:
The passenger list was long and mysterious. Trotsky was in the steerage with a group of revolutionaries; there was a Japanese revolutionist in my cabin. There were a lot of Dutch hurrying home from Java, the only innocent people aboard. The rest were war messengers, two from Wall Street to Germany....12
Notably, Lincoln Steffens was on board en route to Russia at the specific invitation of Charles Richard Crane, a backer and a former chairman of the Democratic Party's finance committee. Charles Crane, vice president of the Crane Company, had organized the Westinghouse Company in Russia, was a member of the Root mission to Russia, and had made no fewer than twenty-three visits to Russia between 1890 and 1930. Richard Crane, his son, was confidential assistant to then Secretary of State Robert Lansing. According to the former ambassador to Germany William Dodd, Crane "did much to bring on the Kerensky revolution which gave way to Communism."13 And so Steffens' comments in his diary about conversations aboard the S.S. Kristianiafjord are highly pertinent:" . . . all agree that the revolution is in its first phase only, that it must grow. Crane and Russian radicals on the ship think we shall be in Petrograd for the re-revolution.14
Crane returned to the United States when the Bolshevik Revolution (that is, "the re-revolution") had been completed and, although a private citizen, was given firsthand reports of the progress of the Bolshevik Revolution as cables were received at the State Department. For example, one memorandum, dated December 11, 1917, is entitled "Copy of report on Maximalist uprising for Mr Crane." It originated with Maddin Summers, U.S. consul general in Moscow, and the covering letter from Summers reads in part:
I have the honor to enclose herewith a copy of same [above report] with the request that it be sent for the confidential information of Mr. Charles R. Crane. It is assumed that the Department will have no objection to Mr. Crane seeing the report ....15
In brief, the unlikely and puzzling picture that emerges is that Charles Crane, a friend and backer of Woodrow Wilson and a prominent financier and politician, had a known role in the "first" revolution and traveled to Russia in mid-1917 in company with the American Communist Lincoln Steffens, who was in touch with both Woodrow Wilson and Trotsky. The latter in turn was carrying a passport issued at the orders of Wilson and $10,000 from supposed German sources. On his return to the U.S. after the "re-revolution," Crane was granted access to official documents concerning consolidation of the Bolshevik regime: This is a pattern of interlocking � if puzzling � events that warrants further investigation and suggests, though without at this point providing evidence, some link between the financier Crane and the revolutionary Trotsky....
Consequently, we can derive the following sequence of events: Trotsky traveled from New York to Petrograd on a passport supplied by the intervention of Woodrow Wilson, and with the declared intention to "carry forward" the revolution. The British government was the immediate source of Trotsky's release from Canadian custody in April 1917, but there may well have been "pressures." Lincoln Steffens, an American Communist, acted as a link between Wilson and Charles R. Crane and between Crane and Trotsky. Further, while Crane had no official position, his son Richard was confidential assistant to Secretary of State Robert Lansing, and Crane senior was provided with prompt and detailed reports on the progress of the Bolshevik Revolution. Moreover, Ambassador William Dodd (U.S. ambassador to Germany in the Hitler era) said that Crane had an active role in the Kerensky phase of the revolution; the Steffens letters confirm that Crane saw the Kerensky phase as only one step in a continuing revolution.
The interesting point, however, is not so much the communication among dissimilar persons like Crane, Steffens, Trotsky, and Woodrow Wilson as the existence of at least a measure of agreement on the procedure to be followed � that is, the Provisional Government was seen as "provisional," and the "re-revolution" was to follow.

Wilson appointed Crane the Ambassador to China from 1919 to 1920. On his return, he took the Trans Siberian Railroad from Harbin, China, across Russia. "[B]y personal intervention with Lenin of the Far Eastern Republic's President, Krasnacheckoff, an ex-Chicago lawyer, permission to make the trip across Russia had been accorded." (Crane Tells of Trip With Load of Rubles. By Walter Duranty. New York Times, Aug. 12, 1921.)

Charles R. Crane was a member of the 1917 Special Diplomatic Commission, or Root Commission to Russia, service as a member of the American Section of the Paris Peace Conference, and the Inter-Allied Commission on Mandates in Turkey in 1919 that now bears his name (King-Crane Commission). Crane later helped finance the first explorations for oil in Saudi Arabia and Yemen and was instrumental in gaining the American oil concession there. (Crane Family Papers at Columbia University)
Last edited by Carol Thompson; 06-28-2009 at 11:16 PM.

Thread: The History of AIG (Part I)

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07-06-2009, 04:32 AM #11 Carol Thompson Carol Thompson is offline
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What unit did Starr serve with? Could it have been one of the units that went to Siberia - the 27th and 31st infantry regiments? The Northern California unit of AEF Siberia had about 165 members, when it held its first reunion. (Siberia A.E.F. To Hold Reunion. Oakland Tribune, Nov. 27, 1940.)
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07-06-2009, 11:34 PM #12 Carol Thompson Carol Thompson is offline
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Edmund Frank Green, Skull & Bones 1880 - organizer of the Pacific Coast Casualty Company in 1902 - Born 1857 in Michigan, died in San Francisco, 1942. Page 17:
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07-10-2009, 03:17 PM #13 Linda Minor Linda Minor is offline
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Default The History of AIG (Part II)
The Secret (Insurance) Agent Men of WWII
Friday, September 22, 2000 The Secret (Insurance) Agent Men
A WWII unit gathered underwriters' data, such as bomb plant blueprints, from warring nations, declassified U.S. files show.
By MARK FRITZ, Times Staff Writer
COLLEGE PARK, Md.--They knew which factories to burn, which bridges to blow up, which cargo ships could be sunk in good conscience. They had pothole counts for roads used for invasion and head counts for city blocks marked for incineration.
They weren't just secret agents. They were secret insurance agents. These undercover underwriters gave their World War II spymasters access to a global industry that both bankrolled and, ultimately, helped bring down Adolf Hitler's Third Reich.
Newly declassified U.S. intelligence files tell the remarkable story of the ultra-secret Insurance Intelligence Unit, a component of the Office of Strategic Services, a forerunner of the CIA, and its elite counterintelligence branch X-2.

Though rarely numbering more than a half dozen agents, the unit gathered intelligence on the enemy's insurance industry, Nazi insurance titans and suspected collaborators in the insurance business. But, more significantly, the unit mined standard insurance records for blueprints of bomb plants, timetables of tide changes and thousands of other details about targets, from a brewery in Bangkok to a candy company in Bergedorf.

"They used insurance information as a weapon of war," said Greg Bradsher, a historian and National Archives expert on the declassified records. That insurance information was critical to Allied strategists, who were seeking to cripple the enemy's industrial base and batter morale by burning cities.

"Within a few days, a conference on the burning possibilities of some important cities will be held," unit chief Robert "Lucky Luke" Rushin wrote a colleague in February 1944, when he was sending data to an Allied bombing-target committee. "I have reproductions of approximately 150 plans covering Jap plants about ready to ride."

The files, at the National Archives office in College Park, are among the latest U.S. intelligence documents ordered declassified by President Clinton last year to speed the identification of Nazi assets. Most of the research attention there has focused on what U.S. intelligence knew about the Holocaust, the whereabouts of Nazi loot, the migration of Nazi war criminals and how much important information never made it to the Oval Office.
But the documents suggest that insurance played an important, if less- noticed, role in the war.

The OSS insurance unit was launched in early 1943, long after it had become alarmingly clear that the Nazis were using their insurance industry not only to help finance the war but also to gather strategic data.
American insurance companies had been competing furiously for overseas business even after the United States entered the war, and the OSS files suggest that details about U.S. factories and cities were falling into enemy hands because of the interlocking international relationships among insurance companies.

Germany had 45% of the worldwide wholesale insurance industry before the war began and managed to actually expand its business as it conquered continental Europe. As wholesalers, or "reinsurers," these companies covered other insurers against a catastrophic loss that could wipe out a single company. In the process, the wholesaler learned everything about the lives and property they were reinsuring.

Unit's Efforts Are More Than Altruistic
The motives of the OSS unit's founders were both pragmatic and patriotic.
"This story is incredible because the unit begins as part of the desire of American [insurance] interests to contribute to the war effort and exploit it for future economic gain," said historian Timothy Naftali, a consultant to the Nazi War Criminals Interagency Working Group that was created by Congress last year.

The men behind the insurance unit were OSS head William "Wild Bill" Donovan and California-born insurance magnate Cornelius V. Starr. Starr had started out selling insurance to Chinese in Shanghai in 1919 and, over the next 50 years, would build what is now American International Group, one of the biggest insurance companies in the world. He was forced to move his operation to New York in 1939, when Japan invaded China. In the early years of the war, the German insurance industry expanded its business as it conquered continental Europe. Nazi insurance brokers who traveled with combat troops during invasions also scoured local insurance files for strategic data.

German-owned companies were blacklisted by the Allies, but the Insurance Intelligence Unit found that the Nazis did business through countries such as Switzerland and laundered transactions through South American affiliates, particularly in Argentina.

"The blacklist is of no good use because the firms not blacklisted are full of Germans," one of the Insurance Intelligence Unit's reports complained in 1943. Starr's people and other insurance executives had intimate knowledge of the people involved in the global insurance business, so they were able to track potential collaborators. Among those they investigated was Carl Theodore Endemann, a naturalized American from Germany who was assigned by the American Foreign Insurance Assn. to Paris in the 1930s. When war broke out, Endemann sided with the Nazis. When France capitulated, Endemann contacted the Germans and gave them exceptionally detailed blueprints, maps and other information to aid Erwin Rommel's war in North Africa.

The report makes a dry reference to Endemann's British wife, the mother of their 7-year-old son, as a "staunchly pro-British" woman who, as a result, "was interned from time to time." The Insurance Intelligence Unit also investigated Americans, which in some cases included an agent's boss. One report showed that an Argentine company owned by the American Foreign Insurance Assn. had a known Nazi collaborator on its board and reelected him after it promised it wouldn't.

The documents also said that two New York insurance executives, Cecil Stewart and Stewart Hopps, also came under scrutiny for selling war insurance to strategic U.S. industries and reselling some of the risk to Latin American affiliates linked to Nazi insurers. The men also ran a steamship company that chartered tankers for Royal Dutch Shell, a Nazi collaborator that used Hitler's slave laborers.

"It's very possible that details of American insurance properties could reach the enemy via this sequence of reinsurance transactions," the report said.
Stewart and Hopps were not unknown to the unit investigators--they had been part of the original OSS committee convened to design the Insurance Intelligence Unit, Naftali said. Such convoluted business dealings were traced largely through the work of Ernest Stiefel, a member of the intelligence unit who diagrammed the way insurance companies pooled their risks, invested in and insured each other and, as a result, willfully or witlessly shared data about nations at war.

"Stiefel mapped the entire system," said Naftali, a historian at the University of Virginia's Miller Center of Public Affairs. "Each time I take a piece of your risk, you've got to give me information. I am not going to reinsure your company unless you give me all the documents. That's great intelligence information."

Naftali came across the first evidence of the unit when the CIA began to release OSS files in the 1980s. He interviewed some members--all now believed dead--for his 1993 doctoral dissertation. Though the earlier files contained references to the insurance unit's work, the recent release adds details about how sensitive data was gathered and shared and how the unit operated.

Though a wiz with records, the unit had problems in the field, where agents operated without the knowledge of local American embassies. Information arrived months after it was requested, particularly from the Far East and North Africa, and in places such as Singapore and Morocco, where expatriates of all types mingled uneasily while the war's battles crept closer.

"They went into the field and the State Department didn't know who they were. The military didn't know who they were. They were largely in neutral zones. These fellows sat in backwaters for months, collecting material and sending it nowhere," Naftali said.

One operative, a Starr insurance man named Bob Smith, traveled throughout China and appeared in several local newspaper accounts as--what else?--a traveling insurance executive named Bob Smith.

Strategic Data Welcomed Back Home
The cables he sent back--still heavily censored by the CIA--showed a man who was under heavy suspicion, often anxious to leave his post and uncertain of how to deliver his information. At one point, posing as an insurance man on a humanitarian visit to a leper colony, he stumbled on Japanese positions in South China. He speculated that he wasn't shot at because the enemy was too busy laughing at Smith's pratfall-plagued attempts to flee through the thicket on a bicycle.

The strategic information was welcomed back at headquarters.
"Our thanks . . . for the gradient profile of the Chinese section of the Canton/Kowloon Railway," chirped the chatty but highly secret OSS newsletter ("Extra! Extra! It's twins for Al Booth!").
"Thank you for the Tokyo Water Supply data! We appreciate it very much," raved yet another edition.
Much information came from unit chief Rushin, a Home Insurance Co. executive who rose to U.S. Army major because of his work. Rushin was sent to London in late 1943 after it became clear that OSS and British intelligence had failed to tap London-based insurers for information about the Pacific theater.

In fact, Rushin found that a U.S. Embassy official assigned to collect such data had set up shop at Swiss Re, an insurance wholesaler still in business with the Nazis. But, through inexperience or incompetence, the embassy official had learned little of value. Rushin was able to gather material that was even in demand by the British. It ranged from Chinese railway inspection reports to photos of the Mitsukoshi department store in downtown Tokyo to blueprints of the chemical company that made the poison gas Hitler used to kill Jews.

Rushin's biggest obstacle appeared to have been the war's own bureaucracy. "I don't have but two legs, no one to help and the job of reproducing is terrific," he complained in a March 1944 memo. "I have material now which has been in the hands of reproduction for six weeks."

Insurance unit spies also came across bits of juicy data that had nothing to do with insurance. They passed along news, for example, that the desperate Nazis had banned the "mourning ribbons" worn by families of the growing numbers of dead. They found a German newspaper obituary of "a collaborator" killed in a "cowardly" attempt by some of Hitler's men to blow up der Fuehrer.

When the tide of the war began to turn and German insurers began losing money, the U.S. insurance agents learned that Nazi insurers were pleading for peace. A source in Stockholm revealed in late 1943 that insurers advised Hitler's people that "ruin threatens all life and fire insurance companies in Germany." As Germany was heavily bombed and casualties mounted, the Nazis prohibited insurance companies from selling new policies--a drastic measure that even prompted complaints in the newspapers. Life insurance and the interest it earned had been viewed as stable investments for Germans who still remembered the hyperinflation that followed World War I.
With the Axis defeat imminent, U.S. intelligence officials focused greater attention on ways the Nazis would try to use insurance to hide and launder their assets so they could be used to rebuild the war machine. It's a task that continues today.

Panel Investigates Life Insurance Claims
A commission headed by former U.S. Secretary of State Lawrence S. Eagleburger is investigating whether five mostly German-owned insurance companies operating today ever paid off all the life insurance policies they sold to Jews, a target market as the Nazis were ascendant. The insurance unit's reports gave at least one chilling glimpse of how Jewish policies were processed: "You might be interested in the enclosed Dutch Decree of June 11, 1943 ordering the reporting and liquidating of all insurance policies on behalf of the Jews. . . ."

The newly released OSS files show just how hard it is to track a paper trail through 50 years of mergers, acquisitions, secret deals and silent partnerships. The files show that American insurance premiums almost certainly wound up in Nazi banks, and German brokers were secretly covering London establishments under attack by the Luftwaffe.
"It makes you wonder if a German insurer insuring an American ship went to the German military and said: 'Don't bomb this ship!' " Bradsher said.

Axis Insurance Firms Resumed After the War
Though the Treasury Department wanted to keep harsh economic restrictions on the defeated Axis powers, the State Department prevailed, and German and Japanese insurance industries resumed operations after the war. Today, for example, Munich Re and Swiss Re are, once again, the two biggest insurance wholesalers in the world. Rushin was promoted to the X-2 branch in Washington after his London mission and then returned to Home Insurance after the war. He retired from the company, which eventually was crushed by asbestos claims from cancer victims in the 1970s. In the end, Home itself didn't have enough insurance to cover its losses.

Starr sent insurance agents into Asia and Europe even before the bombs stopped falling and built what eventually became AIG, which today has its world headquarters in the same downtown New York building where the tiny OSS unit toiled in the deepest secrecy. Starr died in 1968, but his empire endures. AIG is the biggest foreign insurance company in Japan. More than a third of its $40 billion in revenue last year came from the Far East theater that Starr helped carpet bomb and liberate.

Though the OSS files shed light on a little-known operation, there is no good way to fully read the moods and motivations of the people who were part of it. By all accounts, though, Rushin was proud of his spy service.
"He was delighted to talk about this," said Naftali, who talked with Rushin before he died. "He was in his 80s. I was lucky. This latest release [of documents] comes too late. These people are no longer alive."
"History records that the Money Changers have used every form of abuse, intrigue, deceit and violent means possible to maintain their control over governments by controlling money and its issuance." --James Madison
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07-10-2009, 06:10 PM #14 Jan Klimkowski Jan Klimkowski is offline
Founding Member
Join Date
Sep 2008
Yes yes yes.

It's the planned and deliberate survival of IG Farben all over again.

The war as theatre.

The puppetmasters maximising profit opportunities, knowing that trading with the enemy was an empty joke meant for preterite consumption, because there was no enemy... Just trading... Just creating and conquering markets, scarce resources, not cheap labour but slave labour.... no need to worry about unions or contracts of employment... Business as usual taken to its ultimate corrupt platonic archetypal form... Business rewarding a tiny few at the expense of the preterite and Pachacamac herself....
Last edited by Jan Klimkowski; 07-10-2009 at 07:10 PM.
"It means this War was never political at all, the politics was all theatre, all just to keep the people distracted...."
"Proverbs for Paranoids 4: You hide, They seek."
"They are in Love. Fuck the War."
Gravity's Rainbow, Thomas Pynchon

"Ccollanan Pachacamac ricuy auccacunac yahuarniy hichascancuta."
The last words of the last Inka, Tupac Amaru, led to the gallows by men of god & dogs of war
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07-13-2009, 04:50 AM #15 Carol Thompson Carol Thompson is offline
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Jun 2009
Mrs. Frank J. Raven was the sister of Frederick R. Sites. "Born in Foochow, China, the son of missionaries, Mr. Sites joined the steel corporation in Cleveland, and two years later was sent China as a resident engineer. He returned in 1918 and became treasurer of the Federal Shipbuilding Company, Kearny, N.J., a subsidiary of United States Steel." He was manager of the Shanghai office of US Steel Products Co., and then was named secretary to Judge Elbert H. Gary, chairman of US Steel. "Frederick R. Sites, Steel Ex-Official. New York Times, Apr. 30, 1947.)

Another brother, Rev. Clement Moore Lacey Sites (Ohio Wesleyan 1887, PhD Columbia 1899), also born in Foochow, went to China in 1899 with the Methodist Mission Board, and taught at Fukien Christian University and Technical University in Shanghai. He retired in 1941 and returned to New York City. (Dr. Clement Sites Dies. New York Times, Feb. 19, 1958.)

Their father, Rev. Nathan Sites (O.W.U. 1859) was the first alumnus to become a missionary. He arrived in Foochow in 1861. (Ohio Wesleyan Sets Record in Mission Work. Lima News, Nov. 17, 1925.) He brought his wife and children back to Delaware, Ohio, to attend school in 1885. (Piqua, Ohio, Miami Helmet, Mar. 26, 1886.) He died in China in 1895.
Last edited by Carol Thompson; 07-13-2009 at 04:59 AM.
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07-18-2009, 05:19 AM #16 Carol Thompson Carol Thompson is offline
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Jun 2009
The charges of embezzlement against Edmund Frank Green may have been made by his ex-wife-to-be. She shot and killed her first husband, millionaire Henry W. King Jr., in Omaha 25 years before. (Tells How She Killed Husband. Oakland Tribune, Jul. 22, 1913.) Here's Green's book of poetry.
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08-22-2009, 12:05 AM #17 Magda Hassan Magda Hassan is offline
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Sep 2008
Blog Entries
Default Board of Directors and members of executive committee of AIG 2003
Maurice R. Greenberg

Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, AIG
76 years old
#106 on Forbes Worlds Richest People
Net Worth: $3.4 bil
Mr Greenberg is Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of American International Group, Inc. (AIG), a leading global insurance and financial services organization operating in 130 countries and jurisdictions worldwide (click here for history of the company). He was President and Chief Executive Officer of AIG from 1967 to 1989, when he became Chairman and Chief Executive Officer. Mr Greenberg joined AIG in 1960 and was elected President of its American Home Assurance Company subsidiary in 1962.
Mr Greenberg served in the U.S. Army in Europe during World War II and in the Korean conflict, rising to the rank of Captain. He is a recipient of the Bronze Star. He received his pre-law certificate from the University of Miami and an LL.B. from New York Law School in 1950. He was admitted to the New York Bar in 1953. He has been granted honorary degrees from a number of institutions, including New York Law School, Brown University and Middlebury College.
He is the Former Chairman, Deputy Chairman and Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York
Within the AIG Group, he is President, Chief Execurtive Officer and Director of C.V. Starr and Co., Inc. He is also a Director of Starr International Company, Inc. ('SICO'), private holding companies, and a Director of International Lease Finance Corporation ('ILFC') (a wholly owned subsidiary of AIG).
Chairman of the Board for Transatlantic Holdings
Member of the President's Advisory Committee for Trade Policy and Negotiations (ACTPN)
Member of the Corporate Accountablility & Listing Standards Committee of the NYSE

Honorary Vice Chairman of the Council on Foreign Relations
Member of the Trilateral Commission
Member of The Bilberberg Group (attendee of 1991 meeting)
Former Vice Chairman, Center for Strategic and International Studies
Chairman of The Nixon Center
Chairman of The Starr Foundation
Vice Chairman of the US-ASEAN Business Council
Founding Chairman of the US - Phillipine Business Committee
Director of the United Nations Association of the United States of America (UNA-USA)
Director of the Institute for International Economics
Director of the Atlantic Council of the United States
Trustee of the United States Council for International Business
Trustee Emeriti of the Rockefeller University
Member of the Hong Kong Chief Executive�s Council of International Advisors
Director of The National Committee on United States-China Relations
Director of the US-China Business Council
Member of the Business Roundtable
Trustee of the Manhattan Institute
Trustee of the Asia Society
Chairman of the Congressional Economic Leadership Institute
Chairman of the Starr Foundation
Director of the John F Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts
Honorary Trustee of the Business Council for International Understanding
Member of CECP (Corporate Philanthropy for a New Century)
Member of The National Coalition on Asia and International Studies in the Schools
Patron of the American Australian Association
Board of Overseers of Weill Medical College of Cornell University
Chairman Emeritus of the Board of Trustees of New York-Presbyterian Hospital
Life Trustee of the New York University
Director of Project HOPE

Bush �Pioneer� (raised $100,000 + for his 2000 Presidential election campaign)
Sept. 19th 2002: Awarded �Civil Society Vision Award� from the American Friends of the Czech Republic.
2001: Awarded �Person of the Year� by the Brazilian-American Chamber of Commerce
Awarded `The Eisenhower Service to Democracy Awards� from The American Assembly
2002: Awarded the �Albert Gallatin Medal� by New York University

Sons: Evan and Jeffrey


Howard I. Smith

Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer & Vice-Chairman of the Board, American International Group

Mr. Smith joined AIG in 1984 as Vice President and Comptroller from Coopers & Lybrand, where he had been the partner in charge of the firm's New York office insurance practice. He was named Senior Vice President and Comptroller in 1987, and Executive Vice President and Comptroller in 1995. Mr. Smith became AIG's Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer and Comptroller in 1996, and at that time also assumed responsibility for AIG's Treasury, Investor Relations, Credit and Market Risk Management functions.
Director of Transatlantic Holdings
Director of 21st Century Insurance
Also serves as a director of Starr, SICO and ILFC
He is on the Advisory Board of The Merrill Lynch Center at Hofstra University


M. Bernard Aidinoff

M. Bernard Aidinoff is Senior Counsel to the firm of Sullivan & Cromwell, from which he retired as a partner on December 31, 1996. Prior to joining Sullivan & Cromwell, he served as Law Clerk to Judge Learned Hand of the United States Court of Appeals, Second Circuit. He is a director at AIG, a member of the Advisory Board of BNA Tax Management, Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Foundation for a Civil Society and serves as Treasurer and a Director of the Lawyers Committee for Human Rights. He is a graduate of the University of Michigan and the Harvard Law School, where he was an editor of the Harvard Law Review.
President of the Association of the Bar of the City of New York from 1977-1978
He is also a member of the Council on Foreign Relations


Eli Broad

#26 on Forbes Richest Americans
#51 on Forbes Worlds Richest People
Net Worth: $5.2 billion
Eli Broad is a renowned business leader, "venture philanthropist" and supporter of higher education and the arts. He is chairman of SunAmerica Inc., a leading financial services company specializing in retirement savings, and serves on the board of SunAmerica's parent company, American International Group, Inc. He sold SunAmerica to AIG in 1998 for $18 billion. He is founder- chairman of KB Home (formerly Kaufman and Broad Home Corporation).
Mr. Broad was the founding chairman of the board of trustees of The Museum of Contemporary Art (MOCA), and is currently a trustee and member of the executive committee of the Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA). In 1984, he established The Broad Art Foundation to foster the study and appreciation of art created in the last quarter of the 20th century. Through an active lending library program, works from its collection have been loaned to more than 400 museums and university galleries worldwide. He setup The Broad Foundation with his wife in 1999.

An avid supporter of higher education, Mr. Broad recently made a major contribution to the School of Arts and Architecture at University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), toward the construction of a new visual arts facility, to be named the Edythe and Eli Broad Art Center. In 1991, Mr. Broad endowed The Eli Broad College of Business and The Eli Broad Graduate School of Management at Michigan State University, from which he was graduated cum laude in 1954. He is a member of the board of trustees of the California Institute of Technology, where he gave the cornerstone gift to create the Broad Center for the Biological Sciences. His commitment to higher education also includes prior service as chairman of the board of trustees of Pitzer College and vice chairman of the board of trustees of the California State University.


Pei-Yuan Chia

Mr. Chia was vice chairman of Citicorp and Citibank, N.A., its principal subsidiary, from 1994 to 1996 when he retired. From 1993 to 1996, he served as a director of Citicorp and Citibank, N.A., and assumed responsibility for their global consumer business in 1992. Between 1974 and 1992, Mr. Chia held various senior management positions in Citicorp and Citibank, N.A. and was Citibank, N.A.�s senior customer contact for corporate banking activities in Asia.
Role in the Salinas � Citibank affair
He also served as director of CNH Global Inc for several years.

Mr. Chia also serves as:
Director of American International Group
Director of Baxter International, Inc
Director of the Bank of China (Hong Kong) Ltd
Director of CNH Global Inc
Trustee of the Asia Society
Senior Fellow of the CSI Center for Advanced Studies in Management at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania

Marshall A. Cohen

Mr. Marshall Cohen O.C., Q.C., Cassels Brock & Blackwell LLP
67 years old
Mr. Cohen retired as President and Chief Executive Officer of The Molson Companies Limited in 1996. He served with the Government of Canada for 15 years, including appointments as Deputy Minister of Industry, Trade & Commerce, Energy, Mines & Resources, and Finance. He is a director of a number of public companies and a member of various non-profit boards and organizations.
Mr. Cohen is a former International Councillor for The Center for Strategic & International Studies, a member of the Executive Committee of The British-North American Committee and a former member of The Trilateral Commission. He was also the Chairman of the International Trade Advisory Committee for the Government of Canada and is Chairman of the Advisory Council of the Schulich School of Business at York University.
A graduate of the University of Toronto, Osgoode Hall Law School and York University, Mr. Cohen was called to the bar in 1960. Mr. Cohen received the Order of Canada in 1993. (source)
Director of Barrick Gold Corporation (since 1988)
Director of American International Group Inc
Director of Lafarge Corporation
Director of The Toronto-Dominion Bank
Director of Collins & Aikman Corporation
Director of Haynes International, Inc
Director of Metaldyne Corporation
Director of Premcor Inc, The Premcor Refining Group, Inc, Premcor USA Inc.

Member of the International Advisory Committee at The Blackstone Group

Dean's Advisory Council of Schulich School of Business at York University, Canada


Barber B. Conable, Jr

Barber Conable retired on September 1, 1991, after more than five years as President of the World Bank, headquartered in Washington, D.C. The World Bank is a multinational institution promoting economic growth in order to improve the quality of life of poor people in the developing world.
Mr. Conable was a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from 1965-1985. He served on the Ways and Means Committee for 18 years, the last 8 as its ranking minority member. For 14 years he served in various capacities in the House Republican leadership. He was also a member for shorter periods of time of the Joint Economic Committee, the House Budget Committee, and the House Ethics Committee.
On March 11, 1985 he was appointed by Reagan to the Chemical Warfare Review Commission, along with Brzezinski. At the time he was a senior fellow at the American Enterprise Institute.
In November 1985, President Reagan appointed him to be a member of the President's Blue Ribbon Commission on Defense Management.
Following his retirement from Congress he was on the boards of 4 multinational corporations and the Board of the New York Exchange. He was also named a Distinguished Professor of the University of Rochester.
Following his retirement from the World Bank, he has served on 4 corporate boards of directors. He was on the Executive Committee of the Cornell University Board of Trustees, the Boards of both the Museum of the American Indian and the American History Museum at the Smithsonian, the Commission on Global Governance (an independent UN-related Commission), and the Security and Exchange Commission's Advisory Committee on Capital Formation and Regulatory Processes. He was a member of the Senior Advisory Committee and the Global Environmental Facility. He also serves on the Board of the Genesee Country Museum, and on the New York State Commission on Student Aid.
Mr. Conable graduated from Cornell University (A.B., 1942; LL.B., 1948). He is married, has four children, and resides in Alexander, NY. He was born November 2, 1922, in Warsaw, NY.
Director of AIG
Director of AIG Global
Member of the Council on Foreign Relations
Director of the National Committee on US-China Relations
Member of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution
Emeritus Member of the Board of Trustees for Cornell University


Robert L. Crandall

The Wall Street Journal has called Robert L. Crandall, former Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of AMR Corporation and American Airlines, "the man who changed the way the world flies." During his 25-year tenure at American Airlines, Crandall was instrumental in introducing several changes which revolutionized the travel industry.
In 1973, Crandall sponsored a project to modernize American's SABRE computer reservations system, thus laying the groundwork for what eventually became The SABRE Group, now a leading provider of computing and communications services for airlines throughout the world. In 1975, Crandall created Super Saver fares, which introduced the concept of deep discounts for advance-purchase tickets. Subsequently, he led the development of the industry's first yield management system, a revenue-maximizing approach now used throughout the airline industry. In 1980, he created AAdvantage, the industry's first frequent flyer program, and in 1983, launched an expansion program which more than tripled American's size and transformed it from a medium-sized domestic carrier to one of the world's leading international airlines with revenues of more than $20 billion.
Mr. Crandall's experience as an airline executive also includes six years with TWA where he rose to vice president-data services and later vice president and controller. Earlier, he held finance management positions with Eastman Kodak in Rochester, New York, and Hallmark Cards in Kansas City.
�In 1982, former company president Robert L. Crandall was tape-recorded offering to increase prices if a competitor did. "Raise your goddamn fares 20 percent and I'll raise mine the next morning," he told Howard Putnam, president of now-defunct Braniff Inc., who was secretly recording the profanity-laden conversation. "You'll make more money and I will, too," Crandall said. Putnam declined the offer and promptly turned in Crandall.
After losing in the lower court, Justice convinced the 5th Circuit in 1984 that Crandall's offer to fix prices was illegal, even though the offer was declined. That's a key decision, because much of the government's case against Microsoft hinges on allegations that the company proposed dividing markets with rivals such as Apple Corp. -- offers that were rebuffed.� � Washington Post, November 20, 1998
Among the many national and trade publications that have honored Mr. Crandall for his achievements and executive leadership are Business Week, Industry Week, Aviation Week & Space Technology, Financial World, and Air Transport World. In April 1997, Mr. Crandall received the Horatio Alger Award, which honors individuals who have achieved success despite challenging life circumstances.
A native of Westerly, R.I., he is a 1957 graduate of the University of Rhode Island and received a master's degree in business administration from the University of Pennsylvania's Wharton School in 1960.
Mr. Crandall and his wife, Jan, live in Dallas. They have three adult children.
In July 2002 he was named in a lawsuit, along with the other directors of Halliburton (including current Vice President Dick Cheney) �for alleged fraudulent accounting practices which resulted in the overvaluation of the company�s shares, thereby deceiving investors and others.�

Director of Anixter, Inc
Director of Celestica, Inc (since 1998)
Director of Clear Channel Communications, Inc
Director of Halliburton Company (since 1986)
Director of i2 Technologies, Inc
Director of Allied World Assurance Company (a wholly owned AIG subsiduary)
Investor at Metapoint Partners
Senior Advisor to AirTV
Business Advisory Council to University of Rhode Island College of Business Administration
(he also served as director of American Express from 1998-2001)


Martin S Feldstein

Dr. Feldstein has been professor of economics at Harvard University since 1967 and holds the George F. Baker chair in economics. He is also president and chief executive officer of the National Bureau of Economic Research and, previously, chaired the Council of Economic Advisers. He advised the senior President Bush and aggressively supported the current President Bush's tax and Social Security proposals during the 2000 campaign. He has also been cited as a potential replacement for Alan Greenspan when he steps down as Chairman of the Federal Reserve.
At Harvard, Feldstein acted as advisor to Lawrence Lindsey. Lindsey was elected to the board of the Federal Reserve by Bush Sr, and after aiding Bush Jr�s economic proposals for his election campaign, was picked to be Bush�s top economic advisor.
He is the author of numerous papers and books on economic issues and policy, including Economic and Financial Crises in Emerging Market Economies; Inflation, Tax Rules, and Capital Formation; The United States in the World Economy; Reducing the Risk of Economic Crisis; and American Economic Policy in the 1980s.
He is married to Kathleen Feldstein. She is President of Economic Studies, Inc, and serves as a director of Bell South Corp, a director of the Bank of America, a director of John Hancock Financial Services, a director of Ionic Inc, a director of Knight Ridder and a director of Polaris Securities (Hong Kong) Ltd
President and CEO, National Bureau of Economic Research
George F. Baker Professor of Economics at Harvard University
Director of American International Group
Director of Eli Lily & Co
Director of TRW (since 1984)
Director of HCA
Member of the International Council of Advisors at JP Morgan Chase
Member of the International Advisory Board to DaimlerChrysler
Member of the Board of advisors to the Federal Reserve Bank of New York
Member of the International Advisory Board at Robeco
Director of the Council on Foreign Relations
Member of the Trilateral Commission
Member of the Bilderberg Group (attendee of the 1996, 1998, 1999 and 2002 conference)
Director of the Economics Research Network (where he is also an advisor to the `Public Economics� wing)
Director of the National Committee on US-China relations
Member of the World Economic Forum
Member of the Board of Advisors to the Congressional Budget Office
President Elect of the American Economic Association
Member of the Scientific Advisory Board at the Kiel Institute of World Economics
National Officer of the Omicron Delta Epsilon fraternity
Fellow of the Econometric Society
Corresponding Fellow of the British Academy
Member of the American Philosophical society
Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences
Member of the Institute of Medicine at the National Academy of Sciences
Member of the China Economics Network
Member of the Austrian Academy of Sciences
Honorary Fellow at Nuffield College, Oxford
Daimler-Chrysler Advisory Board (unable to confirm) -


Ellen V. Futter

President of the American Museum of Natural History

Ellen V. Futter is President of the American Museum of Natural History. She previously served as President of Barnard College for thirteen years.
Ms. Futter was graduated Phi Beta Kappa, magna cum laude, from Barnard in 1971. She earned her J.D. degree from Columbia Law School in 1974. She was elected to the Board of Trustees of Barnard as a student representative in 1971 and was subsequently elected to full membership to complete the term of Arthur Goldberg, former Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court. She began her career as an associate at the Wall Street firm of Milbank, Tweed, Hadley & McCloy where she practiced corporate law. In 1980, Ms. Futter took a leave of absence from Milbank, Tweed to serve as Barnard's Acting President for one year. At the end of that period, she was appointed President of the College and served in that capacity until 1993 when she joined the Museum.
Born in New York City on September 21, 1949, Ms. Futter attended high school in Port Washington, New York. Before transferring to Barnard College, she spent two years at the University of Wisconsin, Madison.
Ms. Futter is a director of a number of corporations and not-for-profit organizations. She is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Advisory Board of the Yale School of Management, the steering committee of the Financial Services Volunteer Corps, director of the Gilder Lehrman Institute, National Institute of Social Sciences and the Academy of American Poets, as well as of the Association of the Bar of the City of New York and the New York State and American Bar Associations.
She formerly served as Chairman of the Board of New York Federal Reserve Bank and Chairman of the Commission on Women's Health of The Commonwealth Fund. She has received numerous honorary degrees, including from Yale, and awards.
She is currently:

Director of American International Group
Director of J.P. Morgan Chase & Co
Director of Bristol-Myers Squibb Company
Director of Consolidated Edison, Inc
Member of the Council on Foreign Relations
Board of Overseers of Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
(and also a director of the American Museum of Natural History)


Carla A. Hills

Carla A. Hills is chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Hills & Company, International Consultants. The firm provides advice to U.S. businesses on investment, trade, and risk assessment issues abroad, particularly in emerging market economies of East and South Asia, Latin America, Eastern Europe, and the independent republics of the Former Soviet Union.

Hills co-founded the Los Angeles law firm of Munger, Tolles & Hills, where she was a partner from 1962-1974. She was an Adjunct Professor at the University of California at Los Angeles Law School, teaching antitrust law, and co-authored the Antitrust Adviser, which was published by McGraw-Hill. Among other offices, she was president of the National Association of Women Lawyers in 1965 and she also served as president of the Federal Bar Association
She was first offered an appointment as assistant US Attorney by Elliot L. Richardson in 1973, but he resigned shortly thereafter during the Watergate scandal. The offer was renewed by his successor, William B. Saxbe, in 1974. From 1974 to 1975, she was Assistant Attorney General, Civil Division, United States Department of Justice. In 1975, Carla Hills was named by Republican President Gerald Ford as Secretary of the Department of Housing and Urban Development, becoming the third woman in the US to hold a cabinet-level position. Her lack of relevant experience was somewhat controversial during the appointment hearings. In the same year she was named as on of Time Magazine�s Women of the Year. She was succeeded - when Democratic President Jimmy Carter took office - by Patricia Robert Harris, in 1977.
Hills was chairman of the Urban Institute from 1983 through 1988, and was a member of the Executive Committee of the American Agenda, co-chaired by Presidents Ford and Carter. In 1981-1982, she served as Vice-Chairman of President Reagan's Commission on Housing and in 1985-1986 as a member of the President's Commission on Defense Management. Hills has been active in the American Bar Association, serving as Chairman of the Antitrust Section 1982-1983, and as Chairman of the Conference of Section Chairmen in 1983-1984.
Hills served as United States Trade Representative from 1989-1993. As a member of President Bush's Cabinet, Hills was the President's principal advisor on international trade policy. She was also the nation's chief trade negotiator, representing American interests in multilateral and bilateral trade negotiations throughout the world. A free trade advocate, Hills was the primary US negotiator of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).
Born in Los Angeles, California, Hills received her bachelor's degree from Stanford University and received her law degree from Yale University in 1958, marrying Roderick M. Hills in the same year. She has also studied at Oxford University.
She has previously served as a trustee of the Brookings Institution and the Rand Corporation, and as a director of AT&T, International Business Machines Corporation (IBM), Corning Glass Works, the Bechel Group, United Airlines and the Federal National Mortgage Association and for the US-China Business Council. She also served in 2000 as an advisor to the Presidents Appointee Initiative of the Brookings Institute and as a Co-Chair of the `U.S. National Interests and the Western Hemisphere� project for the American Assembly.
Director of AOL Time Warner
Director of American International Group
Director of AIG Global
Director of ChevronTexaco
Director of Lucent Technologies (since 1996)
Director of TCW Group

Vice-Chairman of the Council on Foreign Relations (where she co-chaired the `Independent Task Force on America's Response to Terrorism�)
Member of the Executive Committee of the Trilateral Commission
Member of the Bilderberg Group (attendee of the 2002 meeting)
Chairman of the National Committee on U.S.-China Relations
Director of the Institute for International Economics
Founding member and trustee of the Forum for International Policy.
Trustee & Co-Chair of the Advisory Board of CSIS
Member of the Inter-American Dialogue
Trustee of the Asia Society
Life Trustee of the Urban Institute
Trustee of International Commercial Diplomacy Project
Advisory Council of the Korea Society
Advisory Board of Americans for Humanitarian Trade with Cuba


Frank J. Hoenemeyer

Vice Chairman of the Investment Committee, Carey Institutional Properties Incorporated
Mr. Hoenemeyer has served as Vice Chairman and Chief Investment Officer of Prudential Insurance Company of America. He oversaw the company�s investments during a period in which it assembled the world�s largest real estate and securities investment portfolio and became a leader in real estate, leveraged buyout and venture capital investments. Mr. Hoenemeyer earned a BS in Economics from Xavier University in Cincinnati and an MBA from the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania. In 1947 he joined Prudential as a securities analyst where he rose to become Executive Vice President, Chief Investment Officer and a member of the Executive Office, then a Director and Vice Chairman of the Board.
Mr. Hoenemeyer serves on the Boards of American International Group and Cincinnati, Inc. He is also director (and ex-Chairman) of the Turrell Fund.
He is also a trustee emeritis of The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation


Richard C. Holbrooke

Richard C. Holbrooke is a Vice Chairman of Perseus. He most recently served as the U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations from 1999 until 2001 and was a member of President Clinton�s cabinet.
Ambassador Holbrooke began his career as a Foreign Service Officer immediately after graduating from Brown University in 1962. He was sent to Vietnam and in the following six years served in a variety of posts related to Vietnam -- first in the Mekong Delta as a provincial representative for the Agency for International Development (AID), and then as staff assistant to Ambassadors Maxwell Taylor and Henry Cabot Lodge. In 1966 he was re- assigned to the White House on President Johnson's staff, working on Vietnam. In 1967-69, he wrote one volume of The Pentagon Papers, served as a special assistant to Under Secretaries of State Nicholas deB. Katzenbach and Elliot Richardson, and simultaneously served as a member of the American Delegation to the Paris Peace Talks on Vietnam, headed successively by Averell Harriman and Henry Cabot Lodge.
Following these assignments, Ambassador Holbrooke spent a year as a Fellow at the Woodrow Wilson School at Princeton University. In 1970 he was assigned as Peace Corps Director in Morocco. In 1972, he left the Foreign Service to become Managing Editor of the quarterly magazine Foreign Policy, a position he held until 1976. During 1974-75, he also served as a consultant to the President's Commission on the Organization of the Government for the Conduct of Foreign Policy, and was a contributing editor to Newsweek International. In 1976 he coordinated national security affairs for the Carter-Mondale presidential campaign. In 1977, President Carter appointed him Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs, a post he held until 1981. (He is the only person ever to hold the position of Assistant Secretary of two different regional bureaus in the State Department.) During his tenure in the East Asia Bureau, among other events, the United States established full diplomatic relations with China.
In 1981, he became vice president of Public Strategies, a Washington-based consulting firm founded by him and James A. Johnson. He became a Managing Director at Lehman Brothers, a New York investment bank, in 1985. He also served as a member of the Carnegie Commission on America and a Changing World (chaired by Ambassador Winston Lord), and was chairman and principal author of the November 1992 bipartisan "Memorandum to the President-Elect" of the Commission on Government and Renewal, sponsored by the Carnegie Foundation and the Institute for International Economics.
He was the U.S. Ambassador to Germany from 1993-1994 before being appointed by President Clinton as Assistant Secretary of State for European and Canadian Affairs in 1994. During that time, he was also chief negotiator for the historic 1995 Dayton Peace Accords that ended the war in Bosnia.
He served as vice chairman of Credit Suisse First Boston, a New York based investment bank, from 1996-1999. During the same period he served on a pro-bono basis as the Special Presidential Envoy for Cyprus, and a Special Envoy in Bosnia and Kosovo, where he negotiated the October 1998 agreement, and, after it was violated, delivered the final ultimatum to Belgrade on March 23, 1999, prior to the NATO bombing campaign.
He has received twelve honorary degrees from U.S. and international universities and numerous awards (separate list attached). He is the author of To End a War, (published 1998, and selected as one of the eleven best books of the year by The New York Times) and co-author of Counsel to the President, (1991) the best-selling memoirs of Clark Clifford, as well as numerous articles on foreign policy. He was chairman of Refugees International from 1996 to 1999 and was twice a member of the board of the International Rescue Committee. He was the Founding Chairman of the American Academy in Berlin, a center for U.S.-German cultural exchange. He headed the National Advisory Council of the Harriman Institute. He was a director of the Citizens Committee for New York City, and twice has been a director of the Council on Foreign Relations. Other boards he has served on include the American China Society and the National Committee on U.S.-China Relations.
Ambassador Holbrooke was born on April 24, 1941 in New York. He has two sons. He is married to the author, Kati Marton.
In 1999 he was investigated by the Office of Inspector General for failure to disclose Financial Disclosure Information

He is also:

Director of AIG
Director of Human Genome Sciences
Director of the Council on Foreign Relations
Board of Advisors to Foreign Affairs Magazine (the magazine of the CFR)
Member of the Trilateral Commission
Chairman of the American Academy in Berlin
Director of The American Council on Germany
Director of the National Endowment for Democracy
Member of the World Economic Forum
Advisory Council of the Tanenbaum Center
President/CEO of the Global Business Council on HIV/AIDS
Director of Refugees International
Director of Telluride Foundation
Director of the Citizens Committee for NYC
He also spoke recently to the `McGraw-Hill Companies Homeland Security Summit� along with other luminaries such as Brent Scowcroft and Paul Bremer III.


Edward E. Matthews

Senior Vice-Chairman, Investments & Financial Services, American International Group
He is also a director of Transatlantic Holdings, Starr, SICO and ILFC
He also serves on the International Capital Markets Advisory Committee to the directors of the NYSE.
He is also a trustee emeritus of Princeton University.


Martin J. Sullivan

Executive Vice President, Foreign General Insurance, American International Group, Inc
He joined the company in the Finance Department of AIG�s non- life company in the UK, AIU in 1971. In 1974, he joined the Property Department and held a succession of underwriting and management assignments in the U.K. and Ireland. In 1983, Mr. Sullivan was appointed Property Manager for the U.K. and later Regional Property Manager for the U.K./Ireland.
In 1988, he was named Manager of AIU�s London office and Regional Marketing Manager for the U.K./ Ireland. Mr. Sullivan was appointed Assistant Managing Director of AIG Europe (U.K.) Ltd. in 1989 and Chief Operating Officer in 1991. In 1993 he was named President of AIU�s U.K./Ireland Division and Managing Director of AIG Europe (U.K.) Ltd.
He was elected Senior Vice President, Foreign General Insurance in 1996 and Executive Vice President, Foreign General in 1998. In 1996 he was appointed Chief Operating Officer of AIU in New York and named President of AIU in 1997. He was elected to the Board of AIG and assumed his current responsibilities in May 2002.
Mr. Sullivan is an Associate Member of the Chartered Insurance Institute, a Fellow of the Institute of Supervisory Management, a Member of the British Institute of Management, a Director of the International Insurance Society and a director of the Geneva Association. He is also Deputy Chairman of British American Business Inc. He also serves as a director of Starr and SICO


Thomas R. Tizzio

Senior Vice Chairman, General Insurance, American International Group
Mr. Tizzio has served as a director of Transatlantic Holdings since 1990. He has also served as a director of TRC since 1979 and of Putnam since 1990. He serves as Senior Vice Chairman - General Insurance and Director of AIG and a Director of Starr and SICO.


Edmund S. W. Tse

Senior Vice Chairman, Life Insurance, American International Group
Mr. Tse was elected Senior Vice Chairman, Life Insurance in 2001 after serving as Vice Chairman, Life Insurance since 1997, overseeing AIG's worldwide Life operations. Mr. Tse is also Chairman of American International Assurance Company, Ltd.(AIA), AIG's flagship Southeast Asian life insurance company. Mr. Tse began his AIG career in 1961, when he joined AIA in Hong Kong. In 1970, he joined Nan Shan Life Insurance Company, Ltd., an AIG subsidiary in Taiwan, where he became President and Managing Director in 1975. He returned to Hong Kong in 1983 as President and Chief Executive Officer of AIA. Mr. Tse was named AIG Executive Vice President in 1991 and elected to the AIG Board of Directors in 1996. Earlier in his career Mr. Tse served as Chairman of the Hong Kong Federation of Insurers and was a member of the Hong Kong Government's Insurance Advisory Council. He also serves as a director of AIG�s subsiduaries Philamlife, Starr and SICO.


Jay S. Wintrob

Jay S. Wintrob is president and chief executive officer of AIG SunAmerica a member of American International Group, Inc. (AIG). Wintrob has served on the board of directors of AIG SunAmerica since 1997 and AIG since 1999. Wintrob joined AIG SunAmerica in 1987 as assistant to the chairman and later that year was elected a corporate vice president. He has served as senior vice president (appointed 1989), executive vice president (1991), vice chairman (1995), and chief operating officer (1998) prior to assuming his current position. From 1994 through 2000, Wintrob was president of AIG SunAmerica Investments, Inc., overseeing the company's invested asset portfolio. Prior to joining the company, Wintrob was with the law firm of O'Melveny & Myers in Los Angeles, specializing in mergers and acquisitions and securities law.
He received his juris doctor degree in 1982 from Boalt Hall School of Law at the University of California, Berkeley, where he was elected to the Order of the Coif and currently serves as a trustee. Wintrob is a 1979 summa cum laude graduate of the University of California, Berkeley
He is also a director of United Way of Los Angeles and as a director of AIG subsiduaries Starr and SICO


Frank G. Wisner

Vice Chairman, American International Group
Frank G. Wisner was sworn in as U.S. Ambassador to India on July 5, 1994 and presented his credentials in New Delhi on August 2, 1994, succeeding Thomas R. Pickering. Mr. Wisner holds the personal rank of Career Ambassador, the highest grade in the Senior Foreign Service. Before New Delhi, his most recent assignment was as Under Secretary of Defense for Policy, from January 1993 to June 1994. Prior to that, he served as Under Secretary of State for International Security Affairs from July 1992 until January 1993.
Mr. Wisner served as U.S. Ambassador to the Philippines from August 1991 until June 1992; served as Ambassador to Egypt from August 1986 until June 1991; and served as Senior Deputy Assistant Secretary for African Affairs from April 1982 to April 1986. He served as Ambassador to Zambia from August 1979 to April 1982.
Frank G. Wisner joined the State Department as a Foreign Service Officer in December 1961, and after Western Arabic Language training in Morocco, was assigned to Algiers. In 1964, he was detailed to the Agency for International Development in Vietnam. He remained in Vietnam until 1968, serving in succession as Staff Aide to the Deputy Chief of Mission, Special Assistant to the Director of the Office of Civil Operation, and Senior Advisor to the Vietnamese province of Tuyen Duc.
Returning to Washington in December 1968, Mr. Wisner was Officer in Charge of Tunisian Affairs in the State Department, where he remained until July 1971, when he was named chief of the EconomicCommercial Section at the American Embassy in Tunis. He then serviced as chief of the Political Section in Dhaka from July 1973 until March 1974. From March 1974 until April 1975, Mr. Wisner was Director of Plans and Management in the Bureau of Public Affairs in Washington. He then joined the President's Interagency Task Force on Indochina. He was Special Assistant to the Under Secretary for Political Affairs, Joseph Sisco, from August 1975 until July 1976. Mr. Wisner was named Director of the Office of Southern African Affairs in July 1976, then Deputy Executive Secretary of the Department of State in April 1977.
Frank Wisner was born in New York in 1938. He graduated from Princeton University with a B.A. degree in 1961. He is married to the former Christine de Ganay. They have four children.
He is also:
Director of EOG Resources (formerly Enron Oil & Gas Company)
Director of Ethan Allen Interiors Inc
Vice-Chairman of the Business Council for International Understanding
Director of the US-Saudi Arabian Business Council
Founding Chairman & presently Vice Chairman of the US Bangladesh Business Council
Director of the American-Iranian Council
Director (& past Chairman) of the US � India Business Council
Member of the Council on Foreign Relations
Trustee of International House
Member of the Bilderberg Group (attendee of 1994 meeting)
Member of the RAND Center for Asia Pacific Policy
Trustee of the American University in Cairo
Member of the International Advisory Board of the Center for the Advanced Study of India at the University of Pennsylvania
Wisner & Enron: �The US ambassador in New Delhi, Frank G. Wisner, put enormous pressure on India to stop Enron being thrown out of the country. He, too, got a seat on Enron's board when he retired.� (source)
�The state forces accused of abuses provided security to the Dabhol Power Corporation (DPC), a joint venture of Enron, the Bechtel Corp. and General Electric, overseen by Enron.
The U.S. State Department issued the DPC a human rights clean bill of health. Charged with the assessment was U.S. Ambassador Frank Wisner, who had also helped Enron get a contract to manage a power plant in Subic Bay in the Philippines in 1993. Shortly after leaving his post in India in 1997, Wisner took up an appointment to the board of directors of Enron Oil and Gas, a subsidiary of Enron.
Thanks in part to Wisner's positive rights review, Washington extended some $300 million in loan guarantees to Enron for its investment in Dabhol -- even though the World Bank had refused to finance the project, calling it unviable.� (source) (see also)

Wisner�s father & the CIA:
�Mr. Wisner's unique and courageous endeavors established the doctrine for the use of covert action in support of US national security objectives. He served as the Assistant Director of the Office of Policy Coordination, the Deputy Director for Plans (Operations), an overseas assignment as Chief of Station, and as Special Assistant to the DCI. His depth of knowledge in planning and directing clandestine operations contributed greatly to some of the most intricate and challenging undertakings in the early history of the Agency.� , , ,


Frank G. Zarb

Frank Zarb is a Managing Director and Senior Advisor at Hellman & Friedman. Mr. Zarb�s primary area of focus is the financial services industry.
Mr. Zarb is currently Chairman of NIFA (Nassau County Interim Finance Authority) and a Director at American International Group and a director of Lower Manhattan Development Corporation.
Prior to joining the firm in 2002, Mr. Zarb was Chairman of NASD, Inc. and the Nasdaq Stock Market.
Mr. Zarb became Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Nasdaq� and its parent organization, the National Association of Securities Dealers, Inc. (NASD�) in February 1997. He served as Nasdaq CEO until February 2001 and Chairman until September 2001. He served as NASD CEO until October 2000 and Chairman until September 2001. The NASD is the securities industry's largest self-regulatory organization and is the parent of the American Stock Exchange, NASD Regulation, Inc., and NASD Dispute Resolution, Inc.
From June 1994 through January 1997, Mr. Zarb was Chairman, Chief Executive Officer and President of Alexander & Alexander Services, Inc., a global organization of professional advisors providing risk management, insurance brokerage, and human resource management consulting services from offices in more than 80 countries.
Prior to this appointment, Mr. Zarb was a Vice Chairman and Group Chief Executive of The Travelers, Inc. and Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Smith Barney, a Travelers subsidiary, which he joined in 1988. He was named Group Chief Executive on June 24, 1993. Mr. Zarb was elected a Vice Chairman of The Travelers, Inc. on September 25, 1991.
During his tenure a Smith Barney, Mr. Zarb oversaw growth in the firm's diversity and its clientele. Most importantly, he directed a series of record performances by the firm-from a pre-tax loss of $100 million in 1988 to a run rate of more than $200 million of after-tax profits in 1993. His responsibilities at The Travelers included direct management of Primerica Financial Services, American Capital Management Research, RCM Capital Management, and corporate administration and legal functions.
Before joining Smith Barney, Mr. Zarb was a senior partner of Lazard Freres & Co. From 1978 to 1988, he was responsible for a broad range of investment banking activities, including international and domestic corporate finance and mergers and acquisitions.
From 1974 through 1977, Mr. Zarb was the senior official for all United States government energy-related activities, serving as Executive Director of the Cabinet-level Energy Resources Council, Administrator of the Federal Energy Administration, and Assistant to the President for Energy Affairs (the "Energy Czar"). He led the nation's energy response to the first major oil embargo. Prior to those appointments, he had been Associate Director of the Office of Management and Budget from 1973 to 1974 and served as Assistant Secretary of Labor between 1971 and 1972. He has served in various assignments with the Nixon, Ford, Reagan, Bush, and Clinton administrations.
Before entering public service, Mr. Zarb acquired considerable experience in the securities industries where he began his career with Goodbody and Co. in 1962. He later served in various capacities for predecessor firms to Shearson Lehman Bros., as Executive Vice President of Marketing, Operations and Investment Banking, as well as Chairman of the Executive Committee.
In addition, Mr. Zarb has served as a member of the Board of Credit Suisse First Boston. He is a former Chairman of the New York Stock Exchange Nominating Committee. He served as Chairman of the Long Island Power Authority, the State agency responsible for overseeing the restructuring of the electric power system of Long Island.
In 1999, the Governor of New York named Mr. Zarb Chairman of the Nassau County Interim Finance Authority, a body assembled to lead a state effort to turn around Nassau County's financial crisis.
Mr. Zarb is a member of the Board of Trustees of the Gerald R. Ford Foundation. He is a former Chairman of the Board of Trustees of his alma mater, Hofstra University, where he still serves as a Board member. Hofstra named its business school after Mr. Zarb.

Previously, Mr. Zarb was a member of the Mayor's Commission on Homelessness in New York City and led the Privatization Task Force of the New York City Partnership. He also served as Chairman of the Council for the U.S. and Italy.
Mr. Zarb, who earned his B.S. and M.B.A. degrees in business from Hofstra University, was awarded an honorary Doctor of Law degree by the University and the school's Outstanding Scholar Award. The Georgetown University McDonough School of Business conferred an Honorary Doctorate on him in 2000.
He is also a member of the Council on Foreign Relations.
"I think it would be a good idea." Mahatma Gandhi, when asked what he thought of Western civilization.

The philosophers have only interpreted the world, in various ways; the point is to change it. Karl Marx.

"Well, he would, wouldn't he?" Mandy Rice-Davies, 1963, replied Ms Rice Davies when the prosecuting counsel pointed out that Lord Astor denied an affair or having even met her.
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The Aon Corporation agreed yesterday to buy Alexander & Alexander Services Inc. for about $1.23 billion, creating one of the nation's largest insurance brokerage companies. Aon will pay $17.50 in cash for every Alexander common share, or $790 million. It will also buy out preferred shares held by the insurance group American International Group Inc. for $317.5 million. That means a big profit for A.I.G., which paid $200 million for the stake in June 1994. Aon will also offer to convert Alexander's series A preferred shares into $120 million in cash. Shares of Alexander & Alexander surged $3.125, to $17.25, on the New York Stock Exchange. Aon shares rose $1.125, to $58.75.

Alexander & Alexander Services Inc. - Company Profile, Information, Business Description, History, Background Information on Alexander & Alexander Services Inc.

1211 Avenue of the Americas
New York, New York 10036
History of Alexander & Alexander Services Inc.

Alexander & Alexander Services Inc. (A&A) is the second largest insurance brokerage company, and the largest retail insurance broker, in the world. Through a network of subsidiaries and affiliates, A&A acts as intermediary between clients (usually corporations) and insurance underwriters, receiving a commission based on the premium paid by the client. A&A also offers a variety of risk management consulting services, including loss control and cost studies. Through its Alexander Howden Intermediaries subsidiary, A&A specializes in insurance packages for events and institutions with large, complex risk situations. Another A&A unit, Alexander Howden Reinsurance Brokers Limited, is one of the leading reinsurance brokering companies operating in the London and international markets. In addition, through its Alexander Consulting Group, Inc. (ACG), A&A is engaged in the human resources consulting business, designing employee benefit packages and providing retirement program planning and actuarial services for over 20,000 clients. A truly global organization, A&A operates over 300 offices located in over 80 countries.

Alexander & Alexander was founded as a partnership, late in the nineteenth century, for providing companies with insurance policies. By 1910, the company's client list included Wagons-Lits, the Paris based operator of train coaches, including those of the renowned Orient Express. In 1922, the company began providing services for the Sun Company, which had recently opened its first gas station. After a couple decades of healthy growth, the company was incorporated in Maryland in 1922. A&A's modest but steady growth lead to the expansion of its operations in Canada in the 1940s. The company's personnel management consulting business was also growing strong by the 1950s, and, in 1958, specialty chemical and health care product manufacturer W.R. Grace & Co. came on board as a consulting client.

A&A grew into an international giant in the insurance industry during the 1960s. In 1966, having earned $742,000 on revenue of $13.6 million, the company embarked on an acquisition spree. Over the next five years, A&A acquired 42 insurance brokerages and agencies, one actuarial consulting firm, and a risk analysis and consulting firm. By 1969, the company's revenues were up to $34.5 million, and net income had nearly tripled to over $2 million. A&A's expansion was part of an industry-wide trend that saw the total number of insurance brokerage houses drop dramatically as the larger outfits overtook smaller ones and went public. A&A's initial offering came in April 1969, with its stock opening at $26 a share. By the end of the decade, A&A was operating 23 offices in the United States, five in Canada, and one in Paris. Insurance brokering was generating about three-fourths of the company's revenue. A&A was also operating two subsidiaries: Alexander & Alexander Securities Dealers, Inc. and Benefacts, Inc., which provided employees of client companies information about their group coverage.

A&A's rapid expansion continued into the 1970s, as the company launched a major offensive in the battle to become the first international insurance supermarket. In 1971, the company established a network of eight subsidiaries across Europe. The eight companies, each joint ventures with established European brokerages, included Alexander-Berkeow Mendes (Netherlands), Alexander-Havag (Germany), Alexander-Menage & Jowa (Belgium), Alexander-Bouly (France), Alexander-Pratolongo (Italy), Alexander-Coyle Hamilton (Ireland), Alexander-Sedgwick Services, Ltd. (England), and Alexander-Gonzales (Spain).

In 1973, Alexander & Alexander Services Inc. was created as a holding company for A&A Inc. and its various subsidiaries. By that time, A&A had over 2,000 employees, and its headquarters had been moved from Baltimore to New York. That year, eight new firms with a combined $3.7 million in annual revenue were merged into the company, bringing the total number acquired since 1969 to 69 (65 of them insurance brokerage and agency operations). More acquisitions came the following year. Utica Mutual Assoc.; Lewis M. Gabbe & Co.; and Barton, Curle & McLaren, Inc. were all purchased during 1974. 1975's buying binge included Shand, Morahan & Co., an insurance underwriting management firm; Houston's ECCO General Agency, Inc.; and Great Northeast Agency, Inc., based in Long Island, New York.

By the middle of the 1970s, management at A&A felt it necessary to began searching for a British partner. Meanwhile, the company continued to grow domestically through acquisitions. In 1976, A&A acquired Eastern Brokerage Co. in a stock deal. Herman C. Wolff Co., Inc., one of the oldest agencies in Indianapolis, was also merged into the company that year. 1978 was a huge year for acquisitions, which included Anchor Agency, Inc.; Property Tax Services, Inc.; American Risk Management, Inc.; John B. Meyer; Francis S. Carnes, Inc.; May & Son Brokerage Corp.; Boland Insurance Agency, Inc.; and at least eight other firms. By the end of the decade, A&A was leading the industry in return on equity, at over 30 percent. The precision with which the company chose its acquisition targets was regarded as remarkable.

A&A's first choice for a major merger in England was the highly regarded Sedgwick Group, Lloyd's of London's largest broker. Two and a half years were spent exploring merger possibilities between the two companies. Despite these efforts, the idea was abandoned in July 1981. In the United States, however, the company maintained the pace of its expansion. R.B. Jones Corp. was acquired for stock in 1979, and other companies were added in 1980.

The failure to pull off the Sedgwick merger left A&A was anxious to find an alternative partner and make up for lost time. However, a period of industry weakness, ill-timed decisions, and bad luck ensued for A&A. In January 1982, A&A purchased Alexander Howden Group in a $300 million takeover deal. A&A had discussed merging with Howden--Lloyd's fourth largest broker and largest underwriter--twice in the past, and the two companies had already entered into a joint underwriting venture in Bermuda. To A&A chairperson and chief executive John Bogardus, Jr., Howden seemed the logical second choice for a merger. Unfortunately for Bogardus and A&A, however, the deal was laced with apparent fraud, saddling A&A with devastating losses that would take years to overcome.

Shortly after the purchase of Howden, some $50 million in Howden assets turned up missing, allegedly embezzled. Some of the assets seemed to have been diverted to corporations based in Panama and Liechtenstein. A&A's initial plan was to simply write off the loss as goodwill over 40 years. However, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) deemed that accounting tactic unacceptable, and the company was forced to take a $40 million charge against profits for 1982, resulting in a net loss of $14.4 million for the year. The deal and subsequent $40 million write-off led to a slew of lawsuits. Moreover, underwriting losses from underreserved Howden units totaled another $185 million. In 1983, still reeling from the Howden affair, A&A eliminated 355 jobs and asked one-fourth of its 7,000 remaining employees to take sizable pay cuts. Bogardus himself, as well as president and chief operating officer Tinsley Irvin, took cuts in salary. Another problem was the blow taken by the company's reputation. New clients suddenly became scarce, and several important employees jumped ship. Finally, the company's problems were exacerbated by a generally soft insurance market that saw steep drops in premiums. For 1984, A&A showed a $47 million net loss.

Although preoccupied by the crisis, A&A did not let up in its expansion drive. In November 1982, the company restructured its 88 U.S. offices into three new regional operating groups as part of a more aggressive sales strategy. That year, A&A acquired Clifton & Co. of San Francisco; Banque Du Rhone et de LaTamise, S.A., a Swiss company (later sold); and a minority interest in Industries--Asserkuranz G.m.b.H. & Co. A Boston-based insurance company, OBrion, Russell & Co., was acquired in 1983, and, over the next two years, the company acquired Summit Consulting Inc. of Lakeland, Florida, specialists in workers' compensation self-insurance programs; Long Island's American Coverage Inc.; and Reed Stenhouse Companies Ltd., a Canadian retail brokerage.

By 1985 steps were being taken to reverse A&A's desperate situation. Most of the cases from the Howden fiasco had been resolved by 1986, and, the following year, Irvin became chief executive of A&A. In his first year as CEO, Irvin accelerated the company's retreat from the highly volatile underwriting business, divesting Sphere Drake Insurance Group P.L.C. and Shand Morahan & Co., the last of its major underwriting affiliates. He chose instead to concentrate on the company's core brokerage business and its drive for more of an international presence. At the same time, Irvin sought to create a greater sense of unity among the company's ranks of operating units, a collection of entities resulting from more than 500 acquisitions over the years. Events of 1987 included the opening of offices in Canada, the United Kingdom, and Australia for A&A's Anistics division, its main risk-management consulting branch. The company's employee benefits group also crossed the Atlantic during that year. For 1987, A&A reported revenue of $1.1 billion.

The direct costs of the Howden acquisition were all paid off by the end of the decade. Nevertheless, a soft insurance market kept revenues flat during this time, reaching only $1.25 billion in 1989. Of that total, 62 percent was generated by the company's retail brokerage operations, 8.5 percent by reinsurance brokerage, and 9.3 percent by the Alexander Consulting Group. About 38 percent of revenue came from outside the United States. The Reed Stenhouse unit was particularly active in carrying out A&A's international expansion.

In 1991, A&A posted a net loss of $12.6 million, its first year in the red since 1985. The loss was largely due to a one-time $75 million charge covering the costs of restructuring the company's brokerage operations, including closing some offices and consolidating others. That year, the company was awarded a $350 million insurance brokerage contract by the government of Kuwait to find marine and war-risk insurance for $500 million worth of cargo to be shipped from all over the world as part of an international relief effort.

Unexpected challenges developed for A&A in the 1990s. The company was forced to set aside reserves to cover an open ended liability for claims against Sphere Drake Insurance Group, once a Howden unit. New legal entanglements seemed to crop up at every turn. In autumn 1993, A&A announced that it had been overstating the revenue of ACG, its consulting operation that had been generating about 16 percent of its earnings. A few days after the announcement, ACG chief executive Angelo D'Alessandro died, having been in a coma for six weeks after falling from an elevated rail system in Mexico City during a business trip. A&A was also stung by the surprise resignation of Ron Forrest, chairperson and CEO of A&A Inc., the company's U.S. retail brokerage operation.

In January 1994, Irvin resigned as the board's chairperson and was succeeded by board member Robert Boni. Irvin temporarily retained his position as CEO while an international search was launched for a replacement. On June 7, 1994, A&A named Frank G. Zarb as chairman, CEO, and president. Zarb had been vice chairman and group chief executive of Travelers Inc.

A&A also received a $200 million capital infusion from American International Group, Inc. AIG agreed to invest this sum in a new issue of Series B convertible preferred stock with an eight percent annual dividend. A&A would use a portion of the proceeds of this investment to strengthen its core businesses and finance reinsurance to further insulate the company and its subsidiaries from exposures relating to discontinued underwriting units, primarily those related to the Sphere Drake Insurance Group. Almost immediately, Zarb announced that reinsurance had been arranged.

During A&A's period of crises, other insurance brokers, particularly Marsh & McLennan, gained a competitive edge. Nevertheless, A&A has managed to overcome many of its difficulties, without help from the insurance market in general, which has remained extremely weak for the better part of a decade. When the insurance industry finally manages to right itself, analysts suggest, A&A may have the opportunity to produce the kind of results it had shown before 1982, when the Howden scandal made it the perpetrator of what may be one of the worst takeover deals in history.

Principal Subsidiaries: Alexander & Alexander Inc.; Alexander Insurance Managers Limited; Alexis Inc.; Anistics; Alexander Howden Holdings plc; Alexander Howden Reinsurance Brokers Limited; Alexander Reinsurance Intermediaries, Inc.; Alexander Consulting Group Inc.

Additional Details
Public Company
Incorporated: 1922 as Alexander & Alexander, Inc.
Employees: 14,500
Sales: $1.34 billion
Stock Exchanges: New York
SICs: 6411 Insurance Agents, Brokers & Service; 8742 Management Consulting Services; 6719 Holding Companies Nec
Further Reference 'A&A Inc. Merges Eight New Firms,' Journal of Commerce, February 20, 1973, p. 7.'A&A Merges with Wolff,' Journal of Commerce, May 10, 1976, p. 2.Aarstein, Barbara, 'Alexander & Alexander Inc. Restructures 88 US Offices,' Journal of Commerce, November 15, 1982, p. 11A.'Alexander Chairman Steps Down,' New York Times, January 18, 1994, p. D3.Andresky, Jill, 'Follow the Leader,' Forbes, June 29, 1987, pp. 40-41.Berg, Eric N., 'Insurance Broker Still Suffering from Scandal,' New York Times, June 22, 1983, p. D1.Bray, Edward C., 'The Security I Like Best,' Commercial and Financial Chronicle, March 26, 1970, p. 2.Brenner, Lynn, 'The $300 Million Misunderstanding,' Institutional Investor, February 1983, pp. 179-89.Freudmann, Aviva, 'Kuwait Awards Insurance Broker Massive Contract,' Journal of Commerce, March 14, 1991, p. 1.Greene, Richard, 'Men of Goodwill, Disagreeing,' Forbes, December 6, 1982, p. 168.Greenwald, Judy, 'Alexander & Alexander Services Inc.,' Business Insurance, June 18, 1990, pp. 21-24; June 29, 1992, p. 21-23.'Insurance Brokers: Going Public,' Financial World, August 18, 1971, pp. 9-10.Jaffe, Thomas, 'Problems, Problems,' Forbes, May 16, 1988, p. 154.Roberts, Sally, 'A&A Vows to Rebound from Woes,' Business Insurance, November 8, 1993, p. 1.Robinson, Jeffrey, 'Foxes and Hounds: Which Is Which at Lloyd's?' Barron's, October 11, 1982, p. 15.Rosenberg, Hilary, 'Turnaround Time at A&A?' Institutional Investor, February 1988, pp. 161-64.Steinmetz, Greg, 'Insurance Broker Could Use a Policy Against Problems,' Wall Street Journal, November 5, 1993, p. B4.Steinmetz, Greg, 'Shift at Alexander & Alexander Leads to New Chairman,' Wall Street Journal, January 18, 1994, p. B7.
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No. 94 CV 654(NG)(CLP).
139 F.Supp.2d 305 (2001)

Rosemarie R. D'ALESSANDRO, Individually and as Administratrix of the Estate of Angelo M. D'Alessandro, deceased, Plaintiff, v. AMERICAN AIRLINES, INC., Defendant.

United States District Court, E.D. New York.

March 30, 2001.

View Case Cited Cases Citing Case
Attorney(s) appearing for the Case

Steven R. Pounian, Robert J. Spragg, Jacqueline M. James, Kreindler & Kreindler, New York City, for plaintiff.

Jeffrey J. Ellis, Michael W. Hecht, Anoushka S. Bayley, Brian P. Sexton, Quirk and Bakalor, P.C., New York City, for defendant.


GERSHON, District Judge.

This is an action under the Warsaw Convention to recover damages for wrongful death arising from the fall of Angelo M. D'Alessandro from a mobile passenger lounge vehicle, which is an elevated bus, at Mexico City airport on August 19, 1993. Mr. D'Alessandro was a passenger boarding American Airlines Flight 1054 from Mexico City to Dallas, Texas. He was the last passenger to board the mobile lounge, which was used to transport passengers from the terminal to the aircraft parked some distance away, and which was designed so that passengers could walk directly from the terminal gate to the mobile lounge, and directly from the mobile lounge onto the aircraft, without having to use stairways. After boarding, Mr. D'Alessandro stood by the left door of the mobile lounge he had entered. While he was being transported, Mr. D'Alessandro fell through the door of the mobile lounge, which somehow opened, and he plunged approximately fifteen feet to the tarmac, sustaining severe injuries that resulted in his death approximately six weeks later.

Mr. D'Alessandro, a New Jersey resident, had been the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Alexander Consulting Group, a subsidiary of Alexander and Alexander Services, Inc., at the time of the accident. Defendant American Airlines, Inc. ("American") is a Delaware corporation with its principal place of business in Texas. American does not dispute that the Warsaw Convention applies and that American is responsible for the operation of the mobile lounge, including the conduct of the local airport authority, Aeropuertos y Servicios Auxiliaries, which provided the lounge, and its driver, Reynaldo Paz Ramirez. An American passenger service representative, Sergio Lopez, also was on the lounge when the accident happened.

American moves for partial summary judgment on the ground that there is no evidence that its conduct and the conduct of its agents and representatives rose to the level of culpability required under Article 25(1) of the Warsaw Convention, and therefore the damages that may be recovered are limited to $75,000. American also moves in limine to preclude plaintiff from offering evidence of Mr. D'Alessandro's lost earnings or from presenting the testimony of a proposed witness, Michael J. Corey, to establish Mr. D'Alessandro's future earning capacity.

Limitation of Damages Under Warsaw Convention

Article 25(1) of the Warsaw Convention, as applicable at the time of the incident, provides, according to the official English translation of the governing French text, that the $75,000 limitation on damages does not apply "if the damage is caused by [the carrier's] wilful misconduct or by such default on his part as, in accordance with the law of the court to which the case is submitted, is considered to be the equivalent of wilful misconduct." Although American argues that "wilful misconduct" is a mistranslation of "dol" in the French text, and that "dol" requires the equivalent of intentional conduct with the intent to cause injury, American concedes that its argument has been rejected by the Second Circuit. Brink's Ltd. v. South African Airways, 93 F.3d 1022, 1027-29 (2d Cir.1996), cert. denied, 519 U.S. 1116, 117 S.Ct. 959, 136 L.Ed.2d 845 (1997) (law of forum jurisdiction, not an international standard of "dol", determines what conduct
[139 F.Supp.2d 308]
constitutes wilful misconduct that deprives a carrier of limited liability protection).

Brink's also held that, in light of a recent Supreme Court decision, Zicherman v. Korean Air Lines Co., 516 U.S. 217, 116 S.Ct. 629, 133 L.Ed.2d 596 (1996), the Second Circuit's previous holdings that the law of the forum in cases arising under the Warsaw Convention is federal common law were no longer viable. Instead, the Circuit held, wilful misconduct in a case arising under the Warsaw Convention must be determined by the law that would govern in the absence of the Warsaw Convention, i.e., the law of the forum state, New York, including its choice of law rules. 93 F.3d at 1029-30. American's argument that a still more recent Supreme Court decision, El Al Israel Airlines, Ltd. v. Tsui Yuan Tseng, 525 U.S. 155, 119 S.Ct. 662, 142 L.Ed.2d 576 (1999), demonstrates that Brink's has been implicitly overruled is erroneous. Tseng dealt with whether a passenger who was not entitled to recover for personal injury under the Warsaw Convention could nevertheless recover damages under state tort law, and it held that recovery on a state-law cause of action was precluded as long as the incident occurred during the flight or in the course of embarking or disembarking, which is the scope of the Convention's coverage for personal injury to passengers. Tseng reaffirmed Zicherman's recognition that the Warsaw Convention specifically left certain issues to the law of the forum, stating: "the Court in Zicherman determined that Warsaw drafters intended to resolve whether there is liability, but to leave to domestic law (the local law identified by the forum under its choice of law rules or approaches) determination of the compensatory damages available to the suitor." Tseng, 525 U.S. at 170, 119 S.Ct. 662, citing Zicherman, 516 U.S. at 231, 116 S.Ct. 629 (emphasis in original). Nothing in Tseng nullifies Brink's' holding that the specific reference in the text of Article 25(1) to the law of the court hearing the case constitutes an explicit direction to apply local law which, under Zicherman, is properly state law if no federal statute is applicable.

The next question is what law a New York State court would apply. New York courts first look to determine if a true conflict of law issue exists. Unless it appears that other jurisdictions that have a significant interest in the matter in controversy have materially different principles than a New York court would apply, there is no occasion to undertake a conflict of law analysis. Curley v. AMR Corp., 153 F.3d 5, 12 (2d Cir.1998). New York employs a "flexible approach" of seeking "to apply the law of the jurisdiction with the most significant interest in, or relationship to, the dispute." Brink's, 93 F.3d at 1030, citing Babcock v. Jackson, 12 N.Y.2d 473, 481-82, 240 N.Y.S.2d 743, 191 N.E.2d 279 (1963). The focus in tort cases is upon which jurisdiction has the most significant interest in the particular issue to be determined. Schultz v. Boy Scouts of America, Inc., 65 N.Y.2d 189, 197, 491 N.Y.S.2d 90, 480 N.E.2d 679 (1985). New York courts distinguish in tort cases between "conduct-regulating laws" and "loss-allocating rules." Brink's, 93 F.3d at 1031; Hitchcock v. Woodside Literary Agency, 15 F.Supp.2d 246, 251 (E.D.N.Y.1998); Cooney v. Osgood Mach., Inc., 81 N.Y.2d 66, 72, 595 N.Y.S.2d 919, 612 N.E.2d 277 (1993). As a general rule, the law of the place where the tort occurred is applied to conduct-regulating laws, since that jurisdiction has the greatest interest in regulating conduct inside its borders. "If post-event remedial rules, or loss-allocating rules, are at issue, `other factors are taken into consideration, chiefly the parties' domiciles.'" Brink's, 93 F.3d at 1031, quoting Cooney, 81 N.Y.2d at 72, 595 N.Y.S.2d 919,
[139 F.Supp.2d 309]
612 N.E.2d 277. If a loss allocation rule is at issue, and both plaintiff and defendant share a common domicile, the law of that domicile generally is applied. Cooney, 81 N.Y.2d at 73, 595 N.Y.S.2d 919, 612 N.E.2d 277.

American argues that, under New York choice of law principles, the law of Mexico is applicable. Plaintiff argues that "United States law" applies. Plaintiff further argues that the United States has a greater interest than Mexico in determining a dispute between its domiciliaries. Plaintiff's argument is rejected as an attempt to resurrect a federal common law for Warsaw Convention cases in contravention of Brink's. The proper comparison is between the laws of the particular jurisdictions that have an interest in the issue, not between countries. Thus in Brink's, the Circuit compared the interests of New York and South Africa, not the United States and South Africa, in deciding that a New York court would apply South African law to determine if theft by the South African carrier's employee in South Africa constituted wilful misconduct attributable to the carrier. 93 F.3d at 1031-32. As will be seen, the New York courts would hold that there is no true conflict between the law of New York and the law of Mexico.

Under New York law, wilful misconduct in a Warsaw Convention case is not limited to intentional wrongdoing. In Goepp v. American Overseas Airlines, 281 App.Div. 105, 117 N.Y.S.2d 276 (1st Dep't 1952), aff'd, 305 N.Y. 830, 114 N.E.2d 37, cert. denied, 346 U.S. 874, 74 S.Ct. 124, 98 L.Ed. 382 (1953), the court noted the absence in the case of "necessary elements to establish wilful misconduct," i.e., no proof that defendant interpreted safety regulations in bad faith or "with any intimation that it was incorrect, or that it was arrived at, or effectuated, in a disregard of the possible consequences." Id. at 111, 117 N.Y.S.2d 276. The court approved the trial court's charge that wilfulness required "a conscious intent to do or omit doing the act from which harm results to another, or an intentional omission of a manifest duty. There must be a realization of the probability of injury from the conduct, and a disregard of the probable consequences of such conduct." Id. Goepp then quoted with approval a treatise on air law which defined wilful misconduct under the Warsaw Convention as "`a deliberate act or omission which the person doing or omitting—(i) knows is a breach of his duty in the circumstances; or (ii) knows is likely to cause damage to third parties; or (iii) with reckless indifference does not know or care whether it is or is not a breach of his duty or is likely to cause damage.'" Id.

Subsequent New York decisions expressly reaffirmed Goepp and offered other formulations of the "wilful misconduct" standard that did not require a wrongful act committed with the intention of causing injury. Cohen v. Varig Airlines, 62 A.D.2d 324, 331-33, 405 N.Y.S.2d 44 (1st Dep't 1978) (intentional omission to perform manifest duty with a realization and disregard of probable consequences); Rymanowski v. Pan American World Airways, Inc., 70 A.D.2d 738, 739, 416 N.Y.S.2d 1018 (3d Dep't 1979), aff'd on opn. below, 49 N.Y.2d 834, 427 N.Y.S.2d 795, 404 N.E.2d 1336 (1980) (conscious intent to do or omit doing the act from which harm results); International Mining Corp. v. Aerovias Nacionales De Colombia, S.A., 57 A.D.2d 64, 68-69, 393 N.Y.S.2d 405 (1st Dep't 1977), aff'd, 45 N.Y.2d 915, 411 N.Y.S.2d 220, 383 N.E.2d 866 (1978) (quoting with approval Second Circuit's definition of wilful misconduct in Berner v. British Commonwealth Pacific Airlines, Ltd., 346 F.2d 532, 536-37 (2d Cir.1965), cert. denied, 382 U.S. 983, 86 S.Ct. 559, 15 L.Ed.2d 472 (1966), as intentional performance of an act with knowledge
[139 F.Supp.2d 310]
that it will probably result in injury, or of "`intentional performance of an act in such a manner as to imply reckless disregard of the probable consequences,'" or an omission to act with knowledge of the probability of injury or "`in a manner from which could be implied reckless disregard of the probable consequences of the omission.'"). The New York Court of Appeals affirmed International Mining "[w]ithout undertaking a precise verbal definition of willful misconduct or its equivalent for purposes of the Convention." 45 N.Y.2d at 917, 411 N.Y.S.2d 220, 383 N.E.2d 866. See also Alleyn v. Port Authority of New York, 58 F.Supp.2d 15, 25 (E.D.N.Y.1999) (wilful misconduct in Warsaw Convention case shown by knowledge that the omission to act probably would result in injury or acting or failing to act in a manner that implies reckless disregard of the probable consequences). New York also rejects the argument, similar to the one advanced by American, that French law and its interpretation should be applied in determining the meaning of terms used in the text of the Warsaw Convention. Rosman v. Trans World Airlines, Inc., 34 N.Y.2d 385, 392-95, 358 N.Y.S.2d 97, 314 N.E.2d 848 (1974).

Mexican law is not materially different.1 American's expert asserts that Mexico, as a civil law jurisdiction, would apply "dolo", which is the same as "dol", as that term is generally understood in civil law countries and, according to the expert, requires an intent to cause injury. The expert could not find any cases or other authorities under Mexican law that specifically dealt with the Warsaw Convention. Also, the affidavit does not address how Mexican law treats intentional conduct that would be characterized as reckless in United States jurisdictions. Most critically, American's expert omitted the crucial information that Mexico (unlike the United States) became a party in 1963 to the 1955 Hague Protocol, which in Article XIII abandoned "dol" entirely by amending Article 25 of the Warsaw Convention to provide that the limitation on liability "shall not apply if it is proved that the damage resulted from an act or omission of the carrier, his servants or agents, done with intent to cause damage or recklessly and with knowledge that damage would probably result." The U.S. State Department interprets this provision of the Hague Protocol as being identical to the prevailing definition in common-law jurisdictions of "wilful misconduct," and specifically as that term has been defined in jury charges in New York State courts and in Second Circuit caselaw (which definition, as noted above, has also been adopted in New York). The State Department explains that the amendment was designed to overcome confusion and different connotations that had arisen between civil and common law systems by adopting the definition of conduct that corresponded to wilful misconduct in the latter jurisdictions. S.Exec. Rpt. No. 105-20, Montreal Protocol No. 4, at pp. 15, 47-49, 52-53.

American and its expert simply disregarded Mexico's adoption of the Hague Protocol. New York conflict of law rules require the court to consider the law that each jurisdiction actually would apply, whether derived from cases or statutes. See Schultz (New Jersey charitable immunity statute); Cooney (Missouri workers' compensation statute); Padula v. Lilarn Properties Corp., 84 N.Y.2d 519, 620 N.Y.S.2d 310, 644 N.E.2d 1001 (1994) (New York scaffolding statute). A court in
[139 F.Supp.2d 311]
Mexico at the time of this accident assuredly would not have disregarded a treaty that Mexico had adopted in favor of some generalized notion of "dol" or "dolo" that had been abrogated in that treaty. Instead, the court would have applied the Hague Protocol's revised formulation of the circumstances in which a carrier's limited liability is lifted, which allows for recovery without limitation not only for acts or omissions to act that are done with intent to cause damage or injury, but also for reckless acts or omissions with knowledge of the probable consequences. Since the applicable rule that would be applied in New York and Mexico does not differ materially, a New York court would not defer to Mexican law.

In addition, even if Mexican law were different from that of New York, it is likely that a New York court would apply New York law. Although plaintiff and defendant do not share a common domicile, a New York court would consider it significant that the law of both plaintiff's and defendant's domiciles is the same and is the same as New York's (or, at least, American does not contest that they are the same). Where the law of the domiciles of plaintiff and defendant are the same, and the accident occurs in a third state, the common law of the domiciles of the parties is applied if the ride is one of loss allocation. Tkaczevski v. Ryder Truck Rental, Inc., 22 F.Supp.2d 169, 173-74 (S.D.N.Y.1998). "Under New York's choice of law rules, when conflicting rules concern the allocation of loss rather than the regulation of conduct, the locus jurisdiction has at best a minimal interest in determining the right of recovery or the extent of the remedy." Pescatore v. Pan American World Airways, Inc., 97 F.3d 1, 13 (2d Cir.1996) (internal quotation marks omitted) (declining to apply Scottish law to determine whether damages for loss of society and grief were available to Ohio plaintiff in Lockerbie disaster). New York includes among its loss-allocation rules "those limiting damages in wrongful death actions." Schultz, 65 N.Y.2d at 198, 491 N.Y.S.2d 90, 480 N.E.2d 679; see Barkanic v. General Administration of Civil Aviation, 923 F.2d 957, 962-63 (2d Cir.1991) (Chinese limitation on liability for wrongful death applied as a loss distribution rule under New York law).

Here, the limitation of damages is based upon the type of conduct involved, i.e., the limit is not available where the conduct is wilful. Brink's expressly declined to decide whether a New York court would treat the provision for limitation of liability in Article 25 as a conduct regulating rule or a loss allocation rule. 93 F.3d at 1031. At best, for American, it is a hybrid of loss allocation and conduct regulation. On the facts of this case, Mexico has little apparent interest in limiting the amount of damages that a New Jersey citizen can recover from a Texas-based airline for conduct that gives rise to the carrier's liability under the law applicable in both Mexico and the United States. Cf. Schultz, 65 N.Y.2d at 201, 491 N.Y.S.2d 90, 480 N.E.2d 679 (New York does not have a significant interest in applying its own law to a dispute among New Jersey domiciliaries as to whether recovery for admittedly wrongful conduct was precluded by New Jersey's charitable immunity statute); Curley, 153 F.3d at 12-16 (applying Mexican law in non-Warsaw Convention case, under New York choice of law rules, to determine that pilot's conduct in reporting criminal activity to Mexican authorities in Mexico was proper under Mexican law).

Under New York law, there are issues of fact for trial that require denial of American's motion for summary judgment. Although the testimony is conflicting, a reasonable jury could find that wilful misconduct occurred when the evidence is viewed most favorably to plaintiff. The mobile lounge was equipped with a security
[139 F.Supp.2d 312]
bar which was routinely used and that would have prevented the accident, but the driver intentionally decided not to put it in place. The driver contradicted himself, but admitted in some portions of his testimony that he was aware of the risk that a passenger could fall from a crowded mobile lounge while it was moving if he failed to put the bar in place, and that he was specifically aware of the danger to Mr. D'Alessandro. The driver further admitted that he knew it was dangerous to drive the mobile lounge while passengers stood by the door without having first secured the bar. The driver said that he nevertheless proceeded because American's representative told him the flight would be delayed unless he left, testimony which was disputed by the representative but which the court must take as provable for purposes of the motion. Two passengers state in affidavits that the lounge was very crowded and that it was driven erratically and made sudden stops that caused passengers to fall against each other. The driver was unlicensed and had never received training in operation of a mobile lounge. Accordingly, there are genuine factual issues as to whether "wilful misconduct" occurred.

Proof of Lost Earnings

American's motion to preclude plaintiff from offering evidence of lost earnings, or alternatively, to bar the testimony of Michael J. Corey on that subject, is denied for the reasons stated on the record of oral argument. Despite the evidence presented by defendant indicating that Mr. D'Alessandro's superiors at Alexander and Alexander Services, Inc. would have terminated his employment and held him responsible for financial irregularities that came to light shortly before the accident, there are issues of fact as to whether that action would have been permissible under his written employment agreement. Moreover, his ability to earn substantial income elsewhere is not "speculative" in light of the evidence in the record of his extraordinary abilities as a human resources management consultant and his workaholic disposition. As I ruled during the oral argument, American may take Mr. Corey's deposition if it has not done so already, and any further objections to his testimony or additional arguments to exclude or limit other evidence on damages issues are reserved for the time of trial. If any further discovery on damages issues is sought, disputes should be presented to Magistrate Judge Pollak.


Defendant's motion for partial summary judgment is denied. Defendant's motion in limine to preclude evidence of lost earnings or the testimony of Michael J. Core on that subject is denied without prejudice to raising further objections to such testimony at trial.



1. Since neither party has argued for the application of New Jersey or Texas law, or suggested that these jurisdictions differ from New York or the prevailing rule of courts in the United States that it reflects, the court assumes that the law of these jurisdictions does not differ materially from the law of New York.


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The New York Times Company, 1988 Nov 21
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Alexander &​ Alexander Services Inc. (Executive Changes)
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Alexander &​ Alexander Services Inc.
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The New York Times, v138, 1988 Nov 21, pC6(N) pD4(L) (ISSN: 0362-4331)
The New York Times Company, 1988 Nov 21
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Alexander and Alexander Services Inc. -- Officials and employees (Company name)
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In February 1997, Alexander & Alexander Services, Inc. merged into Subsidiary Corporation, Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of Aon Corporation. Alexander & Alexander Services, Inc., through its subsidiaries, provided risk management, insurance brokerage, and human resource management consulting services, as of February 21, 1997.
1185 Avenue of the Americas
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